CDC Early Childhood Guidance on COVID

Emily Oster

3 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

CDC Early Childhood Guidance on COVID

Emily Oster

3 min Read
Several weeks ago, I wrote a piece in The Atlantic about the irrationality of continuing to require toddlers to mask when older children and adults were not doing so. At the start of that piece, I referred to the CDC guidelines on masking, saying that the agency continued to recommend masking in this group.

That claim was based on a reading of its early-childhood-education guidance, accessible here. Shortly after the piece came out, I was contacted by someone I’d worked with in the past at the CDC who let me know that, in fact, what I wrote wasn’t right. The CDC was no longer suggesting masking for toddlers in areas where it suggested relaxed masking for older individuals (which, at this point, is most of the U.S.).

The confusion comes from the website, which I’ve screenshotted below. The old guidance is what I have crossed out in blue. The red circle is around the new guidance, which suggests the alignment with guidelines for other age groups. The issue, of course, is that on the actual website, there are no blue or red lines, and you can see why this might be confusing.

This discussion was focused on masking. But it’s emblematic of the confusion around many issues in child care and COVID. Parents write to me about still dealing with quarantines for exposure, classroom closures, out-of-state travel quarantines, etc. Despite a lot of loud discussion on masking, I’d venture to say that people’s lives are much more disrupted by not being able to go from Connecticut to New Jersey to see grandma without a seven-day quarantine on the other end.

The CDC guidelines are mostly unhelpful and nonspecific on these issues too. All these things have left the parents of children under 5 feeling abandoned. It’s still totally unclear when we’ll get vaccines for this group, and I hear from so many people who feel the world has just decided to move on without them. This sucks.

I do not have any solutions, but as time has gone on and the CDC has not updated its website, I got curious to see if I could get to the bottom of all this — and to the question of how much it matters for actual practice. So today, we’re going to do two things. First, I’ll report on some information from you, readers, on what your child care is doing. And second, I asked the CDC for some concrete answers.

Your survey responses

A couple of weeks ago, I put out a survey for U.S.-based parents of children under 5 in child care. This wasn’t a random sample! It’s a survey of the readers of this newsletter, about 5,100 of whom wrote in.

I asked three questions: (1) What’s your child care’s masking policy for kids over 2?; (2) What’s the policy with a COVID exposure?; and (3) What’s the policy for travel quarantine? Here are the results:

On masking: About 70% of child-care centers are now not requiring masking in this age group (note that nearly all of these will be “mask optional”). This is consistent with CDC guidance, given the pandemic situation throughout the U.S. at the moment. Twenty percent require masks indoors. It is worth noting that a full 10% of people report that their child-care setting is requiring masking for kids over 2 both inside and outside. This is despite the fact that the CDC guidance has not recommended outdoor masking for almost a year.

On exposures: Half of respondents say that a full quarantine is required after an in-school exposure. Thirty percent have a “test to stay” or “monitor to stay” option, and 18% have no quarantine rules. Several people noted that test-to-stay may be feasible only for children over 2 (although monitor-to-stay is not dependent on age, as it just refers to the practice of not sending your child to school with symptoms).

On travel: Finally, 77% percent of respondents have no travel quarantine restrictions, although 13% still report a quarantine requirement for out-of-state travel (and an additional 10% for international travel only).

What to make of these numbers? I’m not sure. I suspect they may be a little surprising on both sides. The restrictions are highly correlated. If you’re in a child-care setting with mandatory outdoor masking and a seven-day quarantine for visiting grandma, it may be surprising to learn that 70% of settings have no masking and almost 90% have no out-of-state quarantine. On the flip side, I suspect there are people who will be extremely surprised to learn that there are a substantial portion of child-care centers still requiring toddlers to mask outside.

As I’ve written before: to understand each other’s frustration, sometimes it is useful to see the other side.

What guidelines does the CDC actually have?

I asked! I tried to be very specific, and I am tremendously appreciative to have gotten a response from a CDC spokesperson. I’ve printed it in full below.

My questions are in bold.

1. For ECE [early childhood education] programs operating in areas considered low and moderate transmission, where the CDC has suggested optional masking in K-12 environments, can you confirm previous statements indicating that the same masking-optional policy is recommended for ECE environments?  

  • Yes, this is correct.
  • Anyone who chooses to wear a mask should be supported in their decision to do so at any COVID-19 Community Level, including low. At a medium COVID-19 Community Level, people who are immunocompromised or at high risk for severe disease should talk to their health-care provider about the need to wear a mask and take other precautions (for example, avoiding high-risk activities). Since wearing masks or respirators can prevent spread of COVID-19, people who have a household or social contact with someone at high risk for severe disease (for example, a student with a sibling who is at high risk) may also choose to wear a mask when COVID-19 Community Level is medium.
  • At a high COVID-19 Community Level, universal indoor masking in schools and ECE programs is recommended, as it is in the community at large. When the COVID-19 Community Level is high, people at high risk for severe disease should also wear masks or respirators that provide greater protection, such as N95s.
  • As always, masks should not be worn by children under the age of 2 years, or by people with certain disabilities that prevent them from safely wearing a mask.

2. For ECE programs operating in areas considered low and moderate transmission, does the CDC still suggest a 5- (or 10-) day quarantine for any exposure among unvaccinated children? Is this also suggested for unvaccinated children in K-12?   

  • Quarantine recommendations have not changed.
  • Recommendations for close contacts to quarantine, wear a well-fitting mask, and get tested vary depending on vaccination status and prior COVID-19 infection history. They are not affected by the COVID-19 Community Level. People who have come into close contact with someone with COVID-19 should follow the recommendations outlined on the COVID-19 Quarantine and Isolation webpage. This includes in K-12 schools and ECE settings.
  • It is safest for children not yet eligible for COVID-19 vaccination who cannot wear a mask, or who may have difficulty consistently wearing a well-fitting mask, to quarantine for a full 10 days. For more information, see Isolation and Quarantine in Early Care and Education Programs.

3. Do the CDC guidelines indicate that unvaccinated children under 5 should quarantine away from school after visiting a neighboring state?  

  • CDC’s Domestic Travel website indicates travelers who are not up to date with their COVID-19 vaccines should self-quarantine for a full 5 days after travel. This recommendation is currently under review given the COVID-19 community level recommendations and will be updated soon. In the meantime, when making decisions about implementing prevention strategies, ECE programs should consider the educational needs and social and emotional well-being of children and the importance of children’s access to learning and care.

4. The CDC guidelines for these programs were updated on January 28 to add a banner at the top indicating that guidance should be aligned with the community and that the overall page would be updated soon. Many people find this confusing, given that it is followed by guidelines that do not echo the overall population. Do you have a timeline for when this will be fully updated? Has the CDC considered removing the outdated materials or otherwise communicating its new guidance to early childhood programs? 

  • Recommendations for K-12 schools and ECE programs now align with the new COVID-19 Community Levels. CDC is currently updating guidance for K-12 schools and ECE programs to provide additional context for these settings. CDC hopes to release this guidance along with an accompanying FAQ page in the coming weeks.
  • Page banners give us the opportunity to communicate changes in a timely manner while CDC works on updating specific pages to be consistent with updates that affect multiple pages.

I did follow up after this last question to ask something that’s on the mind of many parents, which is how they can communicate this information to their child-care settings or local health departments. The response was “CDC regularly communicates information about guidance updates to health departments and we strongly encourage all settings, including ECE settings, to consult with their local health officials.

I tried reaching out to some local health officials to see about this communication. In at least one case, they indicated their impression that the CDC had not updated their guidance, suggesting some missing communication step.

I also contacted Head Start, where masking is still required according to their website, to understand why it differed from the CDC guidelines. They told me: “Following CDC’s update, the Office of Head Start (OHS) notified programs on Monday, February 28 that it will not be evaluating compliance with the requirement during monitoring visits. OHS is reviewing the new CDC recommendations and will issue updated guidance.”

Interpretations and final thoughts

I am very grateful to the CDC for its response, and I hope this is (a little) helpful. For me, there are three big takeaways.

First: For those who wanted clarity on masking that they could communicate, it’s there.

Second: Quarantines remain a huge and intractable problem. Most child-care centers are still requiring quarantines for exposure, and that is consistent with CDC policy. But it’s also unsustainable, especially since we’ve seen nothing specific on when vaccines might become available. There is a huge need — by the CDC or local public health departments — to try to figure out a solution here. Whether that is test-to-stay, monitor-to-stay, or simply treating these exposures like other illness exposures, I am not sure. But something must be done. Please.

Finally: The last part of the discussion here makes clear to me that the CDC communication infrastructure is, at best, incomplete. I recognize that there are many moving parts, but the fact that the website is still extremely confusing months after the guidelines changed is a problem, even if there are multiple web pages that need updating. This is reflective of some of the overall communication issues the CDC has faced in the past two years. In the upcoming CDC re-evaluation, this seems a top priority to me, and I suspect I am not alone.

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For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
...

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
...

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
...

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
...

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
...

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
...

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
...

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
...

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
...

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
...

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
...

What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...