COVID Vaccines for Kids

Emily Oster

10 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

COVID Vaccines for Kids

Emily Oster

10 min Read
People have been asking me about children’s vaccines for months — Should I vaccinate my kids? Should I fight about it with my spouse? Would you vaccinate yours? — and I’ve been resistant to talking about it because of my “Don’t have hypothetical arguments” policy. Until recently, it’s been unclear when vaccines for children would be available. But last week, Pfizer announced the results of its trial in 5-to-11-year-olds. And although the timeline isn’t completely firm, it seems like vaccines for kids could be coming quite soon. Hence, the argument is not quite so hypothetical, and it’s time to dig in.

The Pfizer trial: what’s the news?

I’m going to start by talking through what Pfizer announced and how to think about its findings. Then I’ll do a few more specific FAQs.

The Pfizer announcement last week reported results from a trial of COVID vaccines in children. The trial has enrolled children as young as six months, but the announcement focused on children 5 to 11. Pfizer had data on 2,268 children in this 5-to-11 age group, and its press release indicates that it found evidence of both safety and efficacy. The company announced that it would apply by the end of the month for FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for this age group.

It is worth pausing on the question of why a different dosing trial was needed for children under 12; the vaccine was approved for 12-to-15-year-olds with the adult dose. The main answer is that because younger children are smaller and possibly more immune-responsive, they were likely to respond to a lower dose of the vaccine. (Stephane Bancel, the CEO of Moderna, explained this to me in an earlier newsletter.) This trial evaluated the vaccine in children 5 to 11 with a dose of 10 micrograms, a third the size of the 30-microgram dose given to older children and adults.

With this dose — it’s a two-dose regimen, three weeks apart — Pfizer says the vaccine was “well tolerated.” Side effects at this dose were comparable to the side effects for older people (some fatigue, fever, etc.). One very important thing to note is that when the FDA evaluates the Pfizer vaccine for EUA, it will delve much more deeply into the possibility of any safety issues. The agency will read in detail the medical data on every child in the trial to look for any possible concerns. So while Pfizer’s public statements on safety so far are simple, the detailed analysis of safety will be enormous.

Pfizer also argued the vaccine was effective, and here is where the data is interesting but also different from adult trials. In the adult COVID trials, the most important outcomes measured were COVID illness (serious illness, hospitalization, death). This outcome is not considered in the pediatric trials because it is too rare even among the unvaccinated group of children.

To see this in detail, think about the numbers. The trial is 2,268 children, of whom two-thirds got the vaccine (one third got a placebo). Even if every single one of the children in the placebo group got COVID during the trial, we would still expect only about 2.5 children to be hospitalized in that group, and no deaths. The actual infection risk is much lower, making these numbers smaller. If we are looking for significant reductions in risk from vaccination, we will not see them, because the baseline risk is so small.

This is very good news for worried parents! But it’s not good for the statistical analysis of that outcome.

To be what statisticians call “powered” to detect an effect on serious illness or hospitalization, we’d need a vastly larger trial. Which could be infeasible and would at a minimum delay vaccines even more. Instead, Pfizer is resting its efficacy claims on the antibody response to the vaccine. Which makes sense, since the way the vaccines work is they produce antibodies. When the company says the vaccine is effective, it means the antibody levels in children were comparable to 16-to-25-year-olds vaccinated with the adult vaccine (in fact, the kids had slightly higher antibodies, despite the lower dose).

So that’s kind of what we have at this point.

What happens now?

Pfizer will submit truckloads of paper to the FDA to read and will ask the FDA to approve the vaccine to be used under EUA. There was a mention of this happening “by Halloween,” but I’m finding the timing on these things very unpredictable in general. As soon as the FDA approval is through, vaccines can begin.

Let’s do some questions

There are many people out there, and I count myself among them, who are eager to vaccinate their kids. But there is also considerable hesitancy, even among adults who are themselves vaccinated (Aaron Carroll had a good recent piece on this). Children are very unlikely to get seriously ill with COVID-19, meaning the most significant impact of vaccines — preventing serious illness — is less important for them. Realizing that, more parents will be reluctant; we have seen it already, with adolescent vaccination rates lower than for older age groups.

As we move into facing these decisions for real, not just hypothetically, I hope we can be prepared to be a little bit gentle with each other. Asking questions about vaccines for kids or being more cautious for kids than older adults — these are reasonable approaches. If society dismisses anyone with any hesitancy as “crazy” and labels them an “anti-vaxxer,” I think we’ll get more anger and probably less vaccination.

So! I’m going to address a bunch of questions below that focus on what we know (and what we do not) about various vaccine concerns. I’m sure this will not be the last newsletter on these choices.

What do you see as the top reasons to vaccinate your child?

  • To prevent them from getting COVID. Vaccines are excellent at preventing any COVID-19 infection. In the first months after vaccination, this protection among adults is close to 90%. Although it wanes some over time, we continue to expect significant protection against infection. Even if your child is unlikely to get seriously ill, we’d all prefer kids who are not sick.
    • Also, if they get COVID, they have to stay home from school for 10 days. Or more!
  • To prevent spread to older adults, who could still get seriously ill. Yes, even if they are vaccinated. It’s rare, but it happens, especially for the immune-compromised.
  • To simplify or eliminate quarantine for exposure. Vaccinated exposures do not need to quarantine in many scenarios.

How can I be confident in vaccine safety with such a small sample size?

I think this is a good question. The fact is, with a sample size of about 2,300 kids, the trial is not going to pick up rare complications. Myocarditis, which does seem to be a risk in young men in particular after vaccination, is showing up at rates of a few in a million. Much more data would be needed to detect complications that are this rare. Of course, the flip side of that is that those complications are rare. Complications that happen to more children would be picked up.

However: we are not flying blind. At this point, millions of 12- and 13-year-olds have been vaccinated against COVID-19. Israel has already been vaccinating younger children. We are seeing that happen safely, and that kind of real-world data should inspire confidence.

As soon as FDA approval goes through, we’ll get even more data. Many people are very eager to vaccinate their kids, which means that within the first weeks we expect to see literally millions of children vaccinated. Nearly all adverse vaccine reactions are close in time to vaccination. For anxious parents who want to wait for more data, you will not have to wait long to see millions of observations.

My kid already had COVID. Do they need a vaccine? Two shots?

These natural-immunity questions are complicated. There are many serious people who think we have not paid enough attention to natural immunity and that we should use only one shot for those who already had COVID-19.

Previous COVID-19 infection confers protection. Based on adult data from Israel, even those who were previously infected had more protection against a breakthrough if they had at least one shot. This is a strong argument for vaccination with at least one shot for this young group.

I hope that the FDA and CDC will soon issue clearer guidance for both children and adults on how we should think about natural immunity (including discussion of boosters after breakthrough, etc.). But I’m staying tuned on this.

My kid is almost 12. Wait until 12 for an adult dose? What if they are small?

I’ve heard two versions of this. The first is: If my kid is almost 12, should I wait until they are 12 so they get the bigger dose? The second is: If my 12-year-old is small in size, should I try to get them the lower dose?

The answer to both is that it likely doesn’t matter. On the first: The lower dose is producing a lot of immunity. As your kid grows up further, they will surely be getting boosters at varying doses. If you’re eager to vaccinate, the best vaccine is the first one.

On the second: They did try adult doses on kids, and the main downside was slightly greater side effects like fatigue. So the risks of having the adult dose are minimal, and many small 12-year-olds have already gotten it. Again, the best vaccine is the first you can get.

What about kids under 5?

Kids under 5 were divided into two different groups in the Pfizer trials: 2 to 5 years, and six months to 2 years. The reason for the separate groups is the need to consider even smaller doses. The indication is the dose in these trials may be as small as 3 micrograms.

Results from these trials, which enrolled later, are expected at the end of the year. From there, the timeline will be similar. You may wish it were sooner, but if I were a betting woman I’d say we’d be vaccinating these groups in January.

The good news is that these groups are extremely low-risk for serious illness, and vaccination for their older siblings will provide protection from infection.

Will you vaccinate your kids?

Yes. There are a lot of reasons for this, some of them listed above. I do not want them to get COVID. I am worried about their immune-compromised grandparent. I would like to avoid quarantine and keep them in school. I’m confident in the vaccines and the FDA process.

So, yes. For Halloween I am hoping to dress my children as partially vaccinated. So far, my kids have expressed enthusiasm about the vaccine, but the costume idea is a tough sell.

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NO QUARANTINES!!!

Emily Oster

Instagram

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For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
...

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
...

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
...

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
...

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
...

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
...

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
...

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
...

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
...

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
...

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
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What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...