Labor Induction and C-Section

Emily Oster

10 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

Labor Induction and C-Section

The facts behind the "cascade of interventions"

Emily Oster

10 min Read

Does labor induction increase the risk of C-section?

It’s a simple question, but one of tremendous importance to many women as they near the end of pregnancy. The share of induced labors has increased over time, and at this point a very large share of women will be offered a labor induction, typically around 39 weeks of pregnancy. In at least some cases, this offer will come with strong encouragement to take it up.

And yet: there is a narrative that runs counter to this advice. A narrative that suggests that labor induction is just the first part of a “cascade of interventions” that are more likely to lead to a C-section. C-sections are extremely safe, and can be literally lifesaving, but for many women they aren’t the preferred mode of delivery. The possible link with inductions may give pause.

So which is it? Do elective labor inductions lead to C-sections or not?

There is a simple data-based answer to this, which is to cite the one large randomized trial on the topic. That trial suggests that, no, elective labor induction doesn’t lead to more C-sections. But this answer is incomplete. It doesn’t grapple with why other data might show something else, and it also doesn’t get to where this trial might have limitations. I’ll try to give a bit more of a complete picture today.

It’s easiest to start, though, with the randomized trial.

The ARRIVE trial

The best evidence we have on the link between induction and the rate of C-section (and other outcomes) comes from the ARRIVE trial. I’ve written about it before, in Expecting Better and also in this newsletter in 2020. The reason that this is our best data is that it’s a well-run randomized trial. The study recruited about 6,000 low-risk women in their first pregnancies. They were randomly allocated to two groups. In the “induction” group, women were encouraged to induce labor at 39 weeks. In the “expectant management” group, women were encouraged to either wait to go into labor on their own, or induce later if not (typically at 41 weeks).

Although the groups were only encouraged, not forced, in practice the induction group was more likely to be induced than the expectant management group. And because the allocation was randomized, there were no other reasons to expect the two groups to differ in their outcomes.

The researchers looked in the trial for any differences in the labor and delivery experience and any differences in the outcomes for infants. What they found was that there were no notable differences in the outcomes for infants — nothing significantly different across the two groups. This wasn’t a surprise. What was more surprising was they found a lower C-section rate in the induction group than in the other (18% versus 22%). This difference was small in magnitude, but it was surprising in part due to the initial concern that induction would lead to higher C-section rates.

This trial was very compelling, and it caused a lot of practitioners to change their thinking about induction, and what they did in practice. But there is lingering confusion. Most notably: If this trial is right, how do we make sense of so much other evidence showing that C-section rates are significantly higher in women who have induced labor? To answer that, we need to dive into those studies in more detail.

Non-randomized evidence

There are many, many non-random studies on this. I’m going to discuss just two, since I think they illustrate the basic points.

We can start with this paper, published in 2021 in the European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. The paper explores the relationship between induction and C-section in a sample of about 6,000 women at a hospital in Illinois. Using data from the hospital, the authors compare the C-section rate for women whose labor was induced with those who went into labor spontaneously.

The paper finds that at all gestational ages, the share of women who had a C-section was about 16 percentage points higher in the induced group than in the spontaneous labor group. This is a large and highly significant increase, as the authors note.

The problem is that it’s very difficult to attribute this to a causal effect of the induction, for at least two reasons. First, in many cases labor induction occurs because someone has a higher-risk pregnancy. Higher-risk pregnancies are more likely to have a C-section, independent of induction, and it’s hard to fully control for that factor.

Second, and probably more important here, the basic comparison is flawed. They are comparing C-section rates for women who are induced with those who show up already in labor. The fact that this latter group has already gone into labor, and progressed to at least some extent, effectively tells you something about their ability to “successfully” labor.

Put differently: the policy question we want to ask is whether the C-section rate would be higher if everyone were induced at 39 weeks rather than waiting and either be allowed to go into labor on their own or induced later if they did not.* This paper, instead, asks whether the C-section rate would be lower if everyone just went into labor on their own. The answer is almost certainly yes. But that’s not a policy! Whether people start labor on their own is not something over which we have control.

This study is inherently quite flawed. But observational data isn’t all inherently problematic, and better analyses lead to conclusions that echo the randomized trial evidence. For example, there is this study, which analyzed records of about 55,000 women over a period of five years at 21 hospitals in the northwestern U.S.

This study takes a different approach from the one above. Instead of comparing inductions with people who are in spontaneous labor, it compares women who are induced with those who continue their pregnancy. That is: take two women who are 39 weeks pregnant. One has an elective induction, one continues the pregnancy. In the end, how do the C-section rates compare?

The choice still isn’t random, but this analysis is much closer to the policy question we want to answer. In this case, the results echo the randomized trial. The C-section rate is about 15% in the induction group, 23% in the non-induction group. On the flip side, the authors find that the rate of instrument-assisted delivery (that’s delivery with forceps or a vacuum extractor) is higher in the induction group. Overall, the C-section result in particular echoes the randomized trial. And with a larger sample size and better design, this is a much more compelling study.

When we look at the broader swath of this literature, these papers are representative. It’s certainly possible to find studies that show a link between induction and C-section, but they tend to be those that do these more biased comparisons. Better data is more supportive of the randomized trial conclusions.

So … induction doesn’t lead to C-sections?

As implemented in the ARRIVE trial and comparable studies, it seems not.

Which brings us to the big uncertainty, which is whether the real world echoes the trials. Research trials like ARRIVE tend to be run in advanced medical centers, places that may differ in many ways from typical hospitals. Beyond this, the hospitals and their doctors know they are in the trial. It’s possible that this knowledge could impact their behavior (this is called the Hawthorne effect). If behaviors differ in other locations — or, rather, if the effect of inductions on C-sections is different — then the results from the trial may not be applicable everywhere.

This is always a concern in applying randomized trial results to the overall population. We sometimes frame it as a problem of “external validity” of the trial results. For the ARRIVE trial specifically, there are two things in the trial that critics have worried about. One is that the women in the trial are all low-risk women who haven’t had children before, and results could differ for others. The second issue is that the overall C-section rate in the trial is fairly low in both groups. This could point to something different about this context. The fact that the results of the trial are reflected in the larger non-randomized studies is encouraging, and perhaps downplays these concerns. But it’s impossible to fully dismiss them.

In reflecting on this and talking to others, what comes out most frequently in the discussion is the possible role of patience. Labor induction takes time. This is true of all labor, but induction in particular. It can be very slow to get going and slow to progress. Someone told me, “I tell my patients: bring a long book.”

This slowness, or the reaction to it, may influence the relationship between induction and C-section. If practitioners, or their patients, are impatient, they may react to a long labor by moving to a C-section. If induced labor is slower than spontaneous labor, this may happen more in that group. And it might be that this factor is less important in a trial like this one, where everyone is aware of what is being studied, and perhaps thinking through the decisions.

A lot of the discussion around inductions and C-sections is focused on the general feeling that C-section rates are too high. In reality, it may be the case that this impatience — in induced or spontaneous labor — could be a bigger key. We get a nice picture of this from a 2018 paper that studied what happened at one hospital when it changed the guidelines for how it defined a stalled labor.

The new guidelines effectively allowed for a slower progression of labor before a conclusion that a C-section might be necessary. And in response, the hospital saw a 30% decrease in its C-section rate. There’s nothing here specifically about induction — these new policies applied across the board — but this provides a good clue (at least to me) that patience is really key.

Should I be induced?

This entire post is focused on the research question of whether inductions increase the risk of a C-section. The answer to this is one input to the decision of whether or not to have one, but it is not the only one. An induction changes the experience of labor. It isn’t something that everyone wants. If the birth experience you want involves starting labor at home, that’s an important consideration too.

Like with many decisions, data is an input — and this data is reassuring if an induction is the direction you want to go — but only one input. These decisions should be made together between patients and doctors. Armed with data, but also with preferences.


*I use “policy” here loosely — no one is expecting there to be some government policy on labor induction. This is a hospital policy or an obstetrics practice policy.

A chart to help readers decide whether spontaneous labor or induction is the right choice for them.
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For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
...

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
...

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
...

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
...

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
...

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
...

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
...

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
...

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
...

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
...

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
...

What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...