Pandemic Test Score Declines

Emily Oster

11 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

Pandemic Test Score Declines

What to make of the latest data

Emily Oster

11 min Read

In the past few months, especially as school has started, there has been a lot of discussion of pandemic student test score losses. The latest iteration of this is a report released by the U.S. Department of Education several weeks ago, showing declines that erased two decades of test score growth.

Approaching this issue, it is clear there are many open questions. Exactly how large are the declines? Why exactly did they happen? What can help? Will they get better on their own, and how fast?

In today’s post I want to unpack a bit of what we already know about the answers to these questions from various data sources, both about test score declines and recovery. This post veers a little bit technical, but I think it is worth it to develop an understanding of these data, as we will continue to get information from them over time.

The TL;DR here is that we do not yet have good answers to every question we’d want to ask, and it will probably be decades of research before we do. Even with what we do have, there is confusion. Not every set of test scores measures the same thing, or the same people. When we confront questions like the role of remote learning in test score losses, it’s not always obvious how to separate remote schooling from other pandemic issues.

It is important to note at the outset that test scores are only one measure of success at school. They do not measure love of learning, or mental health, or kindness, or any of a million other things we care about. It is also the case that any testing is only an imperfect measure of learning, capturing a particular set of skills at a particular moment. However: testing is one consistent measure of learning that we have, and therefore in my view it makes sense to study it.

Sources of U.S. test score data

Let’s start with the basics: Where do we get national data on test score performance for kids? There are really three main sources. This list isn’t comprehensive, and there are other sources of private test score or assessment data. However: these are the main data sources that we can use for large-scale assessment data, to look at big trends and changes.

NAEP Data 

First, the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) is a series of assessments run by the Department of Education. These are our most consistent and comprehensive source of nationally representative test score data (they are sometimes called the “Nation’s Report Card”). The NAEP data includes a variety of assessments in various subjects, although reading, math, and science are the main focus.

The NAEP data is given to a sample that is intended to be nationally representative, though it’s not given to all students. In reading, for example, the latest large-scale NAEP assessment in 2019 was given to about 150,000 children in grades 4 and 8 and about 26,000 in grade 12.

In addition to its main assessments, the NAEP runs a “long-term trend” assessment, which allows for consistent comparison of test scores between the early 1970s and the present. This is a smaller data set, and it is this test that is what the program recently released data from. Its most recent report includes 7,400 students age 9 from 410 schools tested in math and reading. Most of the schools sampled in 2022 were also covered in 2020, so the comparisons in that report are based on a constant sample.

Two notes. First, the NAEP is expected to release more detailed data from its main assessments later this winter. Second, NAEP tests were not performed in 2021, so there are no metrics from the 2021 school year.

State test score data

All individual states do student testing at the end of each school year, and produce data on student performance. This type of “high-stakes testing” is required at the state level to get various types of federal funding. It is these tests that are typically used, for example, to define schools as failing, or rank schools or districts. When you hear a statistic like “43% of third graders in Minnesota are performing at or above grade level in reading,” that statistic is coming from state test score data.

Data from individual states are very useful for research because they are comprehensive — in a typical year, effectively all children take these tests — and often publicly available, identified at the district and school level, often broken down by demographic group. One downside of these data is they are not comparable across states, and sometimes states change their assessments over time. The state comparability is important. It is not meaningful to compare the “pass rate” on state tests in Texas to the pass rate in Rhode Island, since the tests are different and are normed differently, so passing means a different thing in each location.

From the pandemic perspective, state test score data is useful because these tests were given in many states at the end of 2021 and then again in 2022. The 2021 testing is more haphazard (not all states did it, and participation in some states was very low), but there is sufficient coverage that in many states it will be possible to look at the recovery from 2021 to 2022.

NWEA data

A final source of data is from the education nonprofit NWEA, which runs assessment testing (called the MAP Suite) for a large number of districts across the country. These tests are used by districts for evaluation and curriculum planning. The NWEA develops technical reports (e.g. this one) using its data, with the goal of helping teachers and administrators identify student needs.

These tests were administered in at least some locations during 2021. They are generally given multiple times a year, providing a good window into growth even within a school year.

Pandemic test score declines

It is clear from all three of these data sources that student test scores declined during the pandemic.

The recently released NAEP data provides the best consistent metric of this, and shows a sharp decline in both reading and math scores. The main graphs are below. The particular numbers — scores — do not have a lot of meaning to most of us, but the magnitude of the drop relative to historical changes is really steep.

Pandemic score declines can also be seen in state data. This is a topic I have worked on directly, using data produced as part of the COVID-19 School Data Hub. Together with several co-authors, we used data from state assessments in 11 states to show a decline of almost 13 percentage points in pass rates in math, and 7 in English Language Arts. It is harder to compare these to historical changes, but the declines are way beyond typical year-to-year variation.

The NWEA data shows similar declines. This paper compares growth in individual student learning from 2017 to 2019 versus 2019 to 2021 and shows clear evidence that growth is much lower during the pandemic.

Perhaps not surprisingly, in all of these data sources there is evidence that the test score declines are larger for students living in poorer school districts and for students of color. The NWEA analysis, which is at the student level, can show that for individual students, those from lower-income families lost more, as did Black and Hispanic students.

Overall, the picture is clear: large test score declines, especially for the most vulnerable student populations.

Impact of remote learning

The changes in test scores appear effectively everywhere, but are not the same size. Not all students lost the same amount, and not all schools and districts lost the same amount. A natural question is what drives this variation. Given the landscape for schools over the 2020-21 school year, perhaps the most salient question has been about the role of hybrid or remote learning. Are losses larger when students did not have access to in-person school?

This is a difficult question to answer well for several reasons. The most significant issue is that it is difficult to separate schooling mode from other aspects of the pandemic. Areas with closed schools also tended to have more stringent lockdowns on other dimensions. Because of the political dimensions of school closures, areas with open schools also had lower vaccination rates and (as a result) higher death rates. Isolating the impact of schools is hard.

There are at least two papers that have tried to isolate the impacts of remote schooling. The first is our paper analyzing state test scores. This paper can be found here (it’s forthcoming in the American Economic Review: Insights). Our primary approach is to compare changes in pass rates on state-level tests within small areas. We focus on within-commuting-zone variation, so our analysis compares the changes in test scores for areas that are close enough that they are considered in the same commuting zone, but had different degrees of open schools.

Our estimates suggest that in-person schooling was very protective against test score declines, with fully remote districts predicted to decline by 13 percentage points more than fully in-person ones. The losses in areas with hybrid schooling were in the middle between in-person and fully remote.

A second paper, using the NWEA data, focuses on the impact of remote schooling on achievement gaps across groups. The researchers find that test scores declined more in areas with less in-person schooling and that racial and income disparities between children widened in those areas.

Remote schooling was not the only factor. Even in districts that were fully in-person for school, test scores declined on average. However, looking at the data it seems clear that the lack of resumption of in-person learning was a significant contributing factor to test score declines.

Recovery

By the spring of 2022, virtually all school districts had been offering full-time, in-person instruction for the entire school year. In many places, the year was still disrupted by quarantines, but overall it was a first chance for recovery. It is possible to look for this recovery in NWEA data and in state testing data; the national NAEP data sees only the 2022 tests, so it cannot see evidence of recovery from 2021 to 2022.

First, an initial report based on the NWEA data shows some rebounding, although at the end of the 2021-2022 school year, the researchers still observe test scores 5 to 10 percentage points down from baseline in math, and 2 to 4 percentage points in reading.

Second, with recently released data, our team has started to look at the evidence from state tests scores. We are actively producing a series of data briefs.  You can see them here, and with a description here.  In these briefs, we look at changes in test scores from 2019 to 2021 and 2019 to 2022, broken down by the district-level learning mode. Here’s an example set of graphs, from Virginia.

What we observe, overall, is that 2022 test scores are still substantially lower than in 2019, but there has been recovery. On average, Virginia recovered about 40% of its pandemic-year test score losses. The losses during the pandemic were largest in districts with less in-person schooling, and although those recovered at a similar rate to the other districts, they remain lower.

On average, across the states we have data for, about 37% of test score losses seem to be recovered by the end of 2022. However, this recovery is not consistent across states. The graphs below show the same figures for Mississippi. The declines were not as large (although they were still very sizable), but the recovery is much more dramatic. In ELA, in particular, Mississippi fully recovered to the 2019 levels by the end of 2022.

This variation in recovery provides an opportunity to learn about what works to help kids catch up, a question that the pandemic has made more salient but that has always been present. An early note for me is that other than Mississippi, the other state that has shown full recovery of test scores in reading is Tennessee (not yet in our data briefs, but see coverage here). Both Mississippi and Tennessee have invested heavily in phonics-based reading instruction, so this may be (yet more) evidence of the value of those curriculums.

Bottom line

The past two years have seen enormous test score declines for kids, pretty much no matter how you measure them. These declines were caused, at least in significant part, by school closures. There has been some recovery, but it is variable and incomplete. There is more to be done.

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For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
...

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
...

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
...

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
...

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
...

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
...

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
...

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
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The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
...

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
...

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
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What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...