Should We Be Counting COVID Cases?

Emily Oster

10 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

Should We Be Counting COVID Cases?

Emily Oster

10 min Read
It’s a confusing time in the pandemic. On one hand: vaccine access is high, boosters are widely available, kids 5-11 can be vaccinated, new therapeutics are coming soon. On the other hand: cases are up, especially in colder areas where things are moving inside. It seems likely that we’ll see further case increases around the holidays.

This has raised the question: How much should we care about cases at this point? Does it matter how many cases there are, when vaccinations are high? Should we even be counting cases at all?

I see this question from two angles: individual and public health. I’m going to focus largely on the second today, but I’ll start with the first, which I think is less complex.

Should you change your behavior based on number of cases?

If you’re fully vaccinated, broadly speaking, I’d say no. As individuals, the things in our power are to (a) protect ourselves and (b) take steps to limit the impacts of our behavior on others. You can protect yourself by getting vaccinated, and by getting a booster if you want another layer (which you probably should). If you have kids 5-11, you can protect them by getting them vaccinated. If you have kids 0-5, you can protect them by getting yourself vaccinated. Wearing a high-quality mask when you’re traveling or in crowded indoor settings can add a layer of protection.

Vaccines also protect others, and you can take another step in that direction by adding a couple of layers to your safety procedures when you gather — don’t be around other people when you’re sick, and use rapid tests. NB: A much longer form of this same argument is here, and a discussion of holidays in particular is here.

These are precautions that I believe many of us will continue to do for the foreseeable future, more or less regardless of case rates. They recognize the ongoing presence of COVID-19, and actions that we can take to keep ourselves safe. But once you do these, you’re very well-protected from serious illness yourself, and you’re doing a solid part to limit your impact on others. You may or may not choose to go to the gym (I would), but that decision probably shouldn’t be based on the particular case rates this morning versus yesterday.

Should public-health officials be counting cases?

The above is an argument that for fully vaccinated individuals, case rates shouldn’t dictate behavior. A possible corollary is that we shouldn’t track cases at all and should focus instead on hospitalizations and deaths. This discussion is often framed as “Should we count cases?”, although I think that is a bit misleading. Counting cases is just about getting data; more data is generally a good thing, since you can always ignore it.

In practice, what I think is meant is closer to “Should we base policy on cases?” or, perhaps even better, “Should lowering case rates be the goal?” 

This goal-setting question is where I want to focus.  

When it comes to this next phase of the pandemic, there are at least two possible goals. One policy goal is lower case rates. A second is lower rates of serious illness, hospitalizations, and deaths. These are closely linked, but they are not the same. When case rates go up, serious outcomes are expected to increase. But how much they increase depends on the conversion rate. In a sense, we can think of focusing policies on two levers: (1) reducing cases and (2) reducing the rate at which cases become serious illnesses or deaths.

This distinction matters because the policy levers we have to address them differ. Our approaches are really in three categories: policies that do not matter at all and we shouldn’t do; policies that impact case rates; and policies that impact conversion rate from case to hospitalization or death. (I’m going to refer to these all as policies even though some of them, like vaccination, are more individual behaviors; I’m thinking of the policy as “encouraging this behavior.”)

Policies that do not matter: There are a number of policies we have tried that appear to have little or no impact on COVID case rates. These include school closures, extra cleaning procedures, and restrictions on outdoor activities (including any outdoor masking other than in very crowded settings). We shouldn’t be doing these!

Policies that may affect case rates: There are many approaches to lowering case rates, but I’d list five: (1) vaccinations, (2) various lockdowns or restrictions on gatherings, (3) mask mandates, (4) ventilation improvements, and (5) better testing access and encouraging testing.

Policies that affect conversion of case rates to serious outcomes: Just two: vaccinations and better therapeutics (like the new pills from Pfizer and Merck).

If our primary goal is to decrease case rates, we need to focus on the policies that accomplish that. If our primary goal is to limit serious outcomes, we have the full set of policies to choose from.

A reasonable question you may be asking: Even if the goal is only to limit serious outcomes, why not just do all the policies? If we lower case rates and lower the conversion rate, it’s a double whammy!

The issue with this is that our resources — financial, but also attention and focus resources — are finite. Every policy cannot be the most important policy. When we try to get people to do everything, we may fail to help them see which things they should prioritize.

Put simply: if we tell people to stay home when possible, wear a mask all the time, stay distant from others, get vaccinated, and test if they gather, they may find it impractical to do all of these things. Of this list, most public-health officials would agree that getting vaccinated is the most important. But if we fail to prioritize, it’s a lot to expect everyone to see that. At the individual level, we also run into confusing interactions between policies. Mask mandates that include vaccinated people may make sense, but there is no question that they have affected trust in vaccines.

The same issues arise in the focus of government efforts. Do we prioritize vaccine distribution or testing? Boosters for which age group? Choices have to be made.

If we recognize that we cannot do everything, the question of where we want to focus our efforts comes down to identifying our goals and, within those, thinking about the most effective approaches. Looking at the list above, it is difficult to miss that by far our most effective policies are those that affect the conversion from cases to serious illness. Fully vaccinated people are still, even without a booster, in the range of 90% less likely to be hospitalized or die. The new Pfizer therapeutics are showing efficacies of 89%. Those are both huge numbers.

In contrast, many of the policies that target cases have much lower efficacy. Lockdowns likely mattered some (see e.g. this paper on cross-country lockdowns), but the evidence on exactly which restrictions are important is not clear. And within the U.S., there isn’t a clear cross-sectional relationship between COVID levels overall and lockdown choices.

Masks impact spread, but the effects are moderate. The most compelling evidence comes from Bangladesh, where a randomized trial estimated perhaps a 30% reduction in symptomatic illness from surgical masks with perfect compliance (cloth mask effectiveness was not significant). With the actual compliance in the trial, the reduction was only about 10%.

Appropriately used, testing has the potential to be more effective — frequent rapid testing could remove perhaps 90% of infectious cases from circulation — although it requires ongoing buy-in from individuals. Ventilation improvements are also likely to matter a lot, although they require investments. Notably, vaccinations — especially including a booster, but even without — are among the most effective ways to lower transmission. Even with the possibility of breakthrough infections, vaccinated individuals are less likely to become infected, meaning they will be less likely to spread the virus.

Pulling this together

  • If our goal is to reduce serious outcomes, we should prioritize three things: vaccinations (lowers conversion from case to serious outcomes; lowers case rates); approving therapeutics and making them widely available (lowers conversion); and making rapid testing widely available and easy, and providing guidance about use (lowers case rates).

    Together, these have the potential to somewhat impact case rates and to hugely impact conversion rates, and as a result dramatically limit serious outcomes. Prioritizing these things doesn’t mean ignoring the others. It doesn’t mean saying masks do not matter at all. But it’s about where we put our resources and what we emphasize in public messaging.

  • If our goal is to seriously target lower case rates, we need to move on effectively all of our case-reduction policy levers. We will need more continued and enforced mask mandates, more vaccines (and more boosters), probably more lockdowns or movement restrictions, and also better testing access. Even with more restrictions, we may be unable to shift case rates very much, although it seems likely it could have some impact.

These are statements about what is possible. Where does it leave us on how we might think about crafting policy?

Most importantly, it should make clear that the first step in making policy is to say what our goal is. Our current policy discussion is muddled because we haven’t said what we are aiming for. For public-health officials, municipalities, states, and even the federal government, the first step is to state what you are trying to do.

If the goal is to lower serious illness and death, we should pivot our focus away from marginally effective policies that target case rates and focus all in on the smaller set of highly effective policies that can achieve the goal. This doesn’t mean we shouldn’t count case rates (data is good!), but it would mean that we shouldn’t make policy based on these rates. The focus should be on hospitalization, on tracking breakthrough hospitalizations in particular, on targeting therapeutics to areas with less vaccination, etc. The booster shot focus in this case should be on older adults or those who are immune compromised.

On the other hand, if the goal is to lower case rates — to go toward COVID-zero, even if we recognize that arriving there is hard — we should acknowledge that this means leaning very strongly into the set of policies that may impact case rates and (by extension) leaning away from some of the policies that impact conversion. For example: if our goal is lowering case rates, expanded rapid testing may be as or more important than vaccines.

In the end, goal clarity can lead to policy clarity. I have a view here, in case it is not blindingly obvious, that we should focus on serious illness and death and lean into vaccines, therapeutics, and testing. But I know that for others, the goal of lowering case rates is more central — on the view, perhaps, that we do not know the long-term consequences of COVID so we need to be as careful as possible to avoid infection. It is OK to differ in our goals and to debate the right ones. This debate cannot happen, though, if we do not say what the goals are.

I asked at the top: Should we count cases?

And I answer here: It depends on whether that’s the information we want to know.

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NO QUARANTINES!!!

Emily Oster

Instagram

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For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
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If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
...

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
...

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
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It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
...

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
...

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
...

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
...

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
...

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
...

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
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What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...