Tylenol, Pregnancy, and That New Lawsuit

Emily Oster

12 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

Tylenol, Pregnancy, and That New Lawsuit

What to make of the latest data

Emily Oster

12 min Read

This is not the first time I’ve written about Tylenol in pregnancy. It’s not the second time either! But the topic keeps coming up. The latest iteration was a series of scary Instagram posts, some of which reference a possible class-action lawsuit.

This landscape is confusing. On one hand, there are these alarming statements. On the other hand, advisory bodies like the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine state that Tylenol is safe during pregnancy. These are bodies — especially ACOG — that are notoriously conservative in their recommendations around pregnancy behavior. Their statements should be reassuring. And yet people wonder at the disconnect. Does this lawsuit know something that ACOG doesn’t?

Today I want to dive into what is going on here. The TL;DR is that the reason for the confusing messaging is that the evidence itself is confusing. While there is a lot of correlational evidence linking Tylenol during pregnancy with autism or ADHD diagnoses in children, this evidence is largely bad, in the sense of leaving us skeptical about causality.

The bulk of this post is going to try to unpack one study for you, as a representative case, to give a sense of what’s hard about this. But first I’ll talk about why the existence of a lawsuit is not, itself, evidence.

One important note: The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue. 

The lawsuits

There are a number of class-action lawsuits under consideration, filed against organizations that either manufacture or distribute acetaminophen (this would include those that make Tylenol and also places like CVS and Walmart that sell it). There is some more detail about the lawsuits here. They are at an early phase.

The argument in these lawsuits — to oversimplify — will be that there are risks to acetaminophen in pregnancy, these were known, and these companies did not warn consumers about them. The evidence in favor of harm is the evidence I’ll discuss below; there is no secret additional evidence that has come to light. One challenge in this lawsuit will be proving that the data shows evidence of harm.

Even if that is a long shot, though, it may be worth it because the possible rewards are so large. If a court agreed that there were risks to these products, then damages could be owed to every family in which the pregnant person took Tylenol and a child was diagnosed with ADHD or autism. This is a huge number of people. To be clear: even the most aggressive read of the evidence would say that any impacts of Tylenol on these diagnoses are very small. However, in a lawsuit, anyone who was in this overall class could get damages, even if the chance that they were personally harmed is vanishingly small.

All of this is to say that there are strong incentives to pursue the lawsuit even if the evidence is not very compelling. The existence of the lawsuit should not, per se, make us more likely to believe there is a link in the data.

The evidence

All of the evidence on acetaminophen in pregnancy is based on observational studies. Broadly, these studies collect data on women’s consumption of acetaminophen during pregnancy (did they take it? How often?) and match it to some data on their children. Most commonly, these data include whether the child was diagnosed with autism or ADHD, although there are other neurodevelopmental measures as well.

The authors then look at whether the children of mothers who took the medications during pregnancy are more likely to have these diagnoses.

As with any observational approach to data, this study methodology raises the concern that it is not the Tylenol that is driving any difference observed but other differences across the groups. In this particular case, these possible other differences fall into two categories. One concern is that there may be baseline differences across women — differences in age, education, smoking behavior, etc. A second concern is that there are differences that are driving their consumption of Tylenol. That is: it may be extremely difficult to separate the impact of Tylenol from the impact of whatever it is the person was taking Tylenol for.

To dive into how this manifests, and what you might do about it, I want to talk about one exemplar study, in Norway. This study is reflective of much of the rest of the data, although I would say it’s among the best of the evidence in terms of the sophistication of the methods and the quality of the data.

The Norwegian study

The study is here. This particular study looks not at autism or ADHD but at neurodevelopment at 18 months, using a number of metrics.

The authors start with a sample of about 100,000 women. Data from these women is collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Women in the study were surveyed about various aspects of their pregnancy. This included questions about illness during pregnancy and medications taken.

For about half of the women, researchers could follow their children (51,200 of them) at 18 months (the other half were either lost to follow-up or hadn’t been surveyed yet). At 18 months, the children were assessed with several standard tests to measure gross motor skills, fine motor skills, behavior, and temperament. The researchers also collected data on when children learned to walk.

The primary analyses in the paper focus on comparing children of women who did not take acetaminophen (the active ingredient is known in Europe as paracetamol, but I’m going to stick to calling it acetaminophen for consistency) with those who took it for at least 28 days during pregnancy. In an appendix, the authors show that there are no differences for children of mothers who take acetaminophen for less time.

In their first table, the authors show characteristics of the mothers in the no-exposure and the greater-than-28-day exposure groups. They are really different. I’ve captured a few of these differences in the table below.

The most striking differences here — the largest ones — are in variables that seem likely to be reflecting the reason to use a painkiller. For example, 80% of the exposed group report headaches or migraines, versus only 21% of the unexposed group. The exposed group is also much more likely to take other medications, including opioids.

These very significant differences pose an issue for the study, and the authors face it by using an approach called “propensity score matching.” (Teaching moment! Okay, Emily, stay cool.)

Here’s the idea. We’re worried that the people who take medication are different from those who do not, on a bunch of variables. However: imagine for each person with medication exposure, I could find another person without exposure who was exactly the same on all the variables. That is: I find someone who didn’t take acetaminophen but also had headaches, was a smoker, was young, etc. Then I could compare the outcomes for the matched people in the two groups — effectively, looking at impacts while holding constant the observed differences.

This is a procedure called “matching” or sometimes “nearest neighbor matching.” A significant issue with this procedure is that it is often very hard to find a perfect match. Maybe I find someone in the control group who matches on most of the dimensions, but not all. Potentially, I end up throwing away many people who weren’t matched.

Propensity score matching is an approach that delivers (in theoretical results) the same benefits of this nearest neighbor matching, but with fewer restrictions. The underlying idea is that, from the standpoint of causality, I do not actually care that I’m comparing two people whose characteristics are identical. What I care about is that their likelihood of taking the medication is identical. That is: I want to compare two people who seem, based on their observable characteristics, to be equally likely to take the medication. But one of them does and one of them doesn’t. The reason this is less restrictive than the matching described above is that you and I may be equally likely to take the medication, but for different reasons: maybe my chance of taking it is elevated due to headaches, and yours due to back pain. This means we can match people who are not identical on all variables, as long as they are identical on their overall predicted risk.

(There is a lot of interesting theoretical scholarship about this kind of matching; I’m leaving that aside here.)

When the authors do this matching, they extract from the control group a sample who are much more similar to the sample of exposed women. I’ve re-created the table from above below, with the matched group. You can see that, effectively, this procedure has pulled out women from the control group who are much more like the exposed group.

The primary analysis in the paper then compares these two groups.

The authors compare the two groups on 10 milestones. In most of the cases, the risk for the exposed children is slightly higher. It is significantly different in one case (a delayed age of walking). The authors argue that there is also evidence of communication problems, although that result is not statistically significant (it is close). The other outcomes generally point to elevated risks but are not able to reject the null hypothesis that there is no impact of exposure.

What do we take from this? The most direct conclusion — the one the authors argue for in the abstract — is that long-term acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy is a possible risk for delayed walking and communication issues, and caution is warranted.

However: there are a number of remaining concerns that make this conclusion questionable. For one thing, the results are extremely weak statistically — one of them is not significant at conventional levels, and the one outcome that is significant is one that wouldn’t typically be included as part of this type of testing battery.

A more pernicious issue is that this approach only allows researchers to control for differences across groups that are observed. Effectively, in a perfect version of the matching approach, we’d be comparing (for example) two women, both age 34, both with a high school education, and both who have serious migraines. One of them takes the medication and one doesn’t. The theory requires that this choice — conditional on these variables — is unrelated to other important differences across women. But that sometimes seems like a stretch. For example, maybe one person has a better family support system and is able to deal with migraines by taking more naps. But if you acknowledge that, you start to wonder whether it’s the family support that matters rather than the Tylenol.

There is an underlying argument: no matter how good your controls are in an observational study, they are still only controls for the things you can observe. And frankly, that’s a problem.

Back to the bigger picture

This study from Norway is only one example, but there are many studies like it, all of which have similar findings and similar (or worse) methodological problems. Their methods vary. There are studies like this one that actually measure the concentration of acetaminophen in cord blood, and use that as their exposure measure. That seems very fancy and scientific, but it’s subject to most of the same problems as the study discussed above. They are just measuring exposure differently, not fixing the confounding problems.

What I think is compelling and concerning to people is the consistency with which these findings appear. When I posted on the topic a year ago, I discussed this meta-analysis, which combined data from six European cohort studies, all of which were looking at the relationship between acetaminophen exposure and ADHD. They all found a positive relationship. Intuitively we find this convincing, because if there was a relationship, we’d expect to see it in all of the different data sources. But worth remembering: if all of the studies are subject to the same methodological concerns, we could see consistent results because they are all wrong in the same way.

That big study also raises, to my mind, questions that remain unanswered. The table below shows the exposure shares and ADHD shares across cohorts. While within each cohort there is a relationship, if we look across cohorts, there doesn’t seem to be a link. At best, we can say there must be other factors that are driving these differences.

In conclusion

I wish there were a clear way to write this conclusion. I do not think it is right to say that there is nothing in the data that would raise concerns for anyone about long-term acetaminophen exposure. I also think that the quality of the data is largely very poor. Frustratingly, it’s difficult to see how we could improve it; randomizing pregnant women in a study like this would generate significant ethical concerns.

I do think we can end with two important points.

First, to reiterate what I said at the top: the meaningful concerns raised here are with long-term exposure during pregnancy, not occasional exposure. If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

Second: people take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts these studies suggest are very small, even if we take them at face value. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

A pregnant person at work holds her back and head in pain.

Oct 04 2021

6 min read

Tylenol and Pregnancy

Tylenol, and the Boppy Lounger

Emily Oster
A close-up of a pregnant person holding a white pill and glass of water.

Jun 14 2021

7 min read

Tylenol in Pregnancy and ADHD

Unpacking a new paper

Emily Oster
Tylenol pills spill out of a bottle onto a peach background.

Apr 08 2022

2 min read

Can I Take Tylenol in the First Trimester?

About Tylenol in the first trimester if you get a cold or fever: What do I do this early (weeks Read more

Emily Oster
A baby sits on a doctors table and looks concerned while receiving a vaccination from a doctor.

Nov 01 2023

2 min read

Should I Give My Baby Tylenol After a Vaccine?

Does giving a baby Tylenol after a vaccination dampen their immune response and make the vaccine less effective? How does Read more

Emily Oster

Instagram

left right
The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
...

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
...

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
...

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
...

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
...

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
...

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
...

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
...

What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...

Comment ”link” for a DM to learn more about tongue ties 🔗

Breastfeeding is often difficult, especially at the start. For babies with tongue ties, many infants (and their moms) struggle to get the hang of a good latch. This can lead to painful nipples and to inefficient feeding, and then low weight gain.

So what does the data say about the increasingly common practice of cutting tongue-ties in infants to improve breastfeeding success? Several weeks ago, @nytimes published a long and quite scary article on this topic.

After diving into the data, here is what I found. There is limited evidence that frenotomy procedures improve breastfeeding efficacy and the harms of the procedure are minimal. Many women do report that it alleviates pain and helps them with breastfeeding. However, it should not be a first-line treatment for breastfeeding problems.

#parentdata #emilyoster #tonguetie #tonguetiebabies #breastfeedingsupport

Comment ”link” for a DM to learn more about tongue ties 🔗

Breastfeeding is often difficult, especially at the start. For babies with tongue ties, many infants (and their moms) struggle to get the hang of a good latch. This can lead to painful nipples and to inefficient feeding, and then low weight gain.

So what does the data say about the increasingly common practice of cutting tongue-ties in infants to improve breastfeeding success? Several weeks ago, @nytimes published a long and quite scary article on this topic.

After diving into the data, here is what I found. There is limited evidence that frenotomy procedures improve breastfeeding efficacy and the harms of the procedure are minimal. Many women do report that it alleviates pain and helps them with breastfeeding. However, it should not be a first-line treatment for breastfeeding problems.

#parentdata #emilyoster #tonguetie #tonguetiebabies #breastfeedingsupport
...

Tag a friend who needs to hear this 💛 For many choices in parenting, there is no one right answer. We can use research and data to make informed decisions, but ultimately, it won’t tell you what to do. Only you can decide what will be best for your kids and your family.

I’m here to remind you to take a deep breath and trust yourself. I’ll be here to support you along the way. 

Thank you to everyone who submitted videos, including:
@sarah.consoli
@jess_lynn627
@nicolevandenwills
@thedrblair
@ncbenedict29
@haleycimini
@iamkellysnodgrass
@calesse_smith
@garnet__gordon
@jencoopgaiser87
@danigirl18c
@jamielundergreen
@carly_comber
@thecelebratingmama
@emilyannbynum
@eeliz413

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingadvice #parentingsupport #parentingquotes

Tag a friend who needs to hear this 💛 For many choices in parenting, there is no one right answer. We can use research and data to make informed decisions, but ultimately, it won’t tell you what to do. Only you can decide what will be best for your kids and your family.

I’m here to remind you to take a deep breath and trust yourself. I’ll be here to support you along the way.

Thank you to everyone who submitted videos, including:
@sarah.consoli
@jess_lynn627
@nicolevandenwills
@thedrblair
@ncbenedict29
@haleycimini
@iamkellysnodgrass
@calesse_smith
@garnet__gordon
@jencoopgaiser87
@danigirl18c
@jamielundergreen
@carly_comber
@thecelebratingmama
@emilyannbynum
@eeliz413

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingadvice #parentingsupport #parentingquotes
...

Congratulations on making it through another year of panic headlines! We’ve had some doozies this year, like aspartame causing cancer and the perils of white noise, but these headlines are very often based on poor data. Correlation does not equal causation. There will certainly be more panic headlines in 2024, but ParentData is here to debunk them for you.

#emilyoster #parentdata #happynewyear2024 #panicheadline #datadriven

Congratulations on making it through another year of panic headlines! We’ve had some doozies this year, like aspartame causing cancer and the perils of white noise, but these headlines are very often based on poor data. Correlation does not equal causation. There will certainly be more panic headlines in 2024, but ParentData is here to debunk them for you.

#emilyoster #parentdata #happynewyear2024 #panicheadline #datadriven
...