Vaccine Efficacy by the Numbers

Emily Oster

10 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

Vaccine Efficacy by the Numbers

Emily Oster

10 min Read
Every week I do an Instagram Q&A, which is usually a good window into what people are worried about, especially around COVID. Last week, one of the first questions was “Since vaccines aren’t effective after six months, will we need boosters forever?” I started my answer with THIS IS WRONG. But it, along with many other questions I’ve been getting, makes it clear that there is a lot of confusion around vaccine efficacy.

So today I wanted to write a bit about how we measure and understand vaccine efficacy, why it’s complicated, and what we know so far. There are some interesting statistics in here too, and you know I like that.

The TL;DR is that vaccines are extremely protective (like, 90%+) against severe illness and death. But let’s get into it.

What Are Vaccines For?

I want to start by talking about the goal of vaccines. What can we expect from them? The most important goal of vaccines is to protect against serious illness and death, and that’s what they are best at. If you want to understand this in depth, read this amazing piece by Céline Gounder right now (I’ll wait!).

To briefly summarize, vaccines help protect you in two ways. First, you develop antibodies to the virus, which are immediately available to protect you if you’re exposed. Second, you produce memory cells, which remember how to produce antibodies if you need them later. The initial antibodies stick around for a while but not forever, but the memory cells remain.

If you’re exposed to the virus in the period shortly after vaccination, when you have active antibodies, your body is ready to go. You fight off the virus fast, and you probably won’t get sick at all. If you’re exposed later, though, it takes a few days for your memory cells to kick in. So you may get slightly sick, especially with a virus like SARS-CoV-2 that has a short incubation period. But, importantly, your immune system is ready. This means you get better faster, get less sick in the first place, and infect fewer people.

Side note: If you are vaccinated when pregnant, you pass the antibodies to the baby but not the memory cells, which is why the baby’s immunity wanes while yours does not. 

What we should expect following vaccination is an initial period in which the vaccines are protective against serious illness, death, and milder illness. And then a period in which the vaccine shows waning immunity against mild illness but maintains protection against more serious illness. This continued protection against serious illness means the vaccines are working. As we will see below, that’s what is going on.

A lot of the problems and misconceptions seem to stem from having generated unrealistic expectations for the vaccines early on. I will admit to having made this mistake along with many other people; we should have been more circumspect about the longer term. And we should have been clearer about what we could expect from vaccines.

With this background, then, I think we can ask two follow-up questions. First: How have the vaccines stood up against hospitalization and death? Is their protection against those waning? And second, how much protection do they still provide against any disease?

Vaccine Efficacy: Hospitalization and Death

If you run a randomized trial, it’s easy to evaluate the protection afforded by vaccines against hospitalization and death. Half the sample is vaccinated and the other half is not, and you evaluate the percent reduction in risk. If there is a 1% chance of hospitalization in the unvaccinated group and a 0.05% chance in the vaccinated group, that’s 95% protection.

Evaluating vaccine efficacy in the real world is more complicated.

The parallel analysis to the randomized trial would involve, simply, comparing the hospitalization rate for vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals and doing a similar calculation. However, that can be misleading in a way the randomized trial is not, because in the real world, vaccination isn’t random. There are at least two issues. The first is that vaccinated people may behave differently than unvaccinated. If vaccinated people take more risks, this will mean real-world data understates vaccine efficacy (if they take fewer, it will overstate it).

Much more important in this case, though, is that in the real world, vaccination rates increase with increasing age. This is true because of the patterns of rollout and because of variation in desire for the vaccine. Whatever the reason, the result is that in the real world we may understate the efficacy of vaccines if we ignore age patterns.

We saw this very starkly in the analysis of some of the Israeli data (see a longer discussion here). If we just compare hospitalization rates, it looks like vaccine efficacy is down to 67%. But in fact, if we look within age groups, the efficacy ranges from 82% to 100%, with nearly all age groups having efficacy at or above 90%. This seems kind of weird, until you recognize that the 67% basically comes from the fact that the oldest groups have the highest vaccination rates but also are more likely to be hospitalized. (This idea — that the average efficacy could be lower than the efficacy in any group — is called Simpson’s paradox.)

Data out of New York, published a week or two ago, shows a similar 90% protective effect against hospitalization from May through late July (again, once adjusted for age). Much of this data is post-Delta. A study from the U.K. shows 90% protection against Delta from two-dose vaccination.

As we look at the data, it is important to remember that 90% isn’t 100%. The Financial Times had a good graphic illustrating the impact of vaccination on death risk by age. The writers’ point is that given the much higher baseline risk, a fully vaccinated 80-year-old, for example, has about the same mortality risk as an unvaccinated 50-year-old. Of note, a fully vaccinated older adult still has a much higher mortality risk than an unvaccinated child.

But 90% is still 90%, and the evidence doesn’t point to significantly waning protection against hospitalization and death. Vaccines remain very, very effective.

Vaccine Efficacy: Any Infection

You thought hospitalization was hard! Get ready for something harder.

Evaluating the protection afforded by the vaccines against any degree of infection could, in principle, be done in the same way as for hospitalizations. That is: look at the infection risk for vaccinated individuals versus unvaccinated. This runs into the same problem as with hospitalizations. In addition, it runs into the much more important problem of case detection. We do not detect all cases of mild or asymptomatic illness, and they may be less commonly detected in vaccinated individuals.

Based on the data from New York referenced above, the protection against any infection seemed to wane, from 90% to 80% over the course of May to July. This suggests a degree of waning immunity. Another recent CDC paper indicates vaccine efficacy dropping to 66%, though there are caveats. A similar number has come out of Israel.

Getting more precision on this number will take time, and careful study — basically, we need to be doing more comprehensive testing; we may see better data out of cohorts like universities and professional sports leagues with comprehensive testing programs and variation in vaccination. The data is pointing to efficacy against any infection declining. How much is unclear.

Don’t Make This Mistake!

There is one logical pitfall that I strongly advise you to avoid: the denominator mistake. In the discussion of the Provincetown outbreak, there was a lot of talk of the fact that 75% of infections were in vaccinated people. But the thing is that nearly everyone there at the time was vaccinated.

As more and more people get vaccinated, we can expect a larger share of infections to take place in vaccinated people. Don’t get hung up on this!

Bonus: Boosters, Natural Immunity, and Kids

Three bonus questions to address here.

First: With all this context, what is the deal with boosters? 

A booster shot — literally, a third dose of the same vaccine — has two possible uses. First, for people who are immune-compromised (say, cancer patients), a third dose of vaccine may be necessary to prompt a strong immune response. There is widespread agreement for using boosters this way; one way to think about it is that this group should have been on a three-dose regimen initially.

For everyone else, who likely had a robust immune response initially, the value of a booster is less clear. The booster will prompt more antibody production, increasing immediate protection, but it isn’t clear that that’s necessary to improve protection against severe disease. Which is the point of the vaccines in the first place. This isn’t a straightforward trade, and reasonable people differ.

Second: What about natural immunity?  

If you had COVID, how does that compare with being vaccinated? Is it more protective? Less? In practice, both vaccination and prior infection convey a lot of protection. Comparing the two is … you guessed it, difficult.

There is evidence from Israel, still in preprint form, that argues that infection is less likely after previous infection than after vaccination. That is to say, it finds high protection delivered by both natural immunity and full vaccination, but higher protection from natural immunity.

Notably, in that study the researchers found the highest protection from infection in individuals who had COVID-19 and also had at least one dose of the vaccine. A smaller study in Kentucky found that, among individuals who had COVID, those who were later vaccinated were less likely to be reinfected.

Putting this together, the data points to significant protection provided by natural immunity — likely comparable to vaccination — but that those who have had COVID before can be even better protected by also being vaccinated.

Third: Where the f**k are the vaccines for kids?  

Trust me, I’m as frustrated as you are. The timeline seems totally unclear. Is it November? December? March? The chaos at the FDA isn’t helpful. I cannot think of what to do but continue to complain and wait.

However, I want to revisit what I said at the top about expectations. If vaccines for kids work as well as they do for adults, they’ll lower the risk of hospitalization. That risk is already low (perhaps 1 in 200), and a 90% reduction would lower it to 1 in 2,000. This would be a big percentage change, even if the baseline risk is already quite small. Still, it’s very good, which is why I want vaccines.

What we shouldn’t expect is for vaccines to eliminate the risk of kids getting asymptomatic or mild COVID. Yes, that risk will be lower. But it will not be zero. I’m not saying this to scare you, just to set realistic expectations. As much as we may wish it, zero COVID isn’t realistic, for kids or anyone.

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NO QUARANTINES!!!

Emily Oster

Instagram

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For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
...

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
...

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
...

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
...

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
...

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
...

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
...

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
...

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
...

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
...

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
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What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...