Vaccine Hesitancy: The Next Frontier

Emily Oster

12 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

Vaccine Hesitancy: The Next Frontier

Emily Oster

12 min Read

Up to the present moment, the problems with vaccine have been largely about supply. More people want to be vaccinated (in total) than doses which are available right now. But — slowly — we are starting to see this ease up. And in more and more places, we’re seeing the first hints of softer demand, places opening up vaccines to all age group because demand is waning among older people. My emails, where until recently vaccine questions clustered around when one would be eligible, have subtly shifted to “What do I do, having just realized my parents refuse to be vaccinated?!”

People are finding themselves “parenting up” (HT Kelly Fradin), simultaneously trying to make sure the 18 month old doesn’t eat the five year old’s marbles while explaining over the phone that, no, a mold allergy does not rule out vaccination.

With this looming, I thought it would be useful to talk through issues of vaccine resistance, both from a policy standpoint and in our personal lives. This piece is long, so here’s a TL;DR outline:

TL;DR

  • We don’t know an exact “herd immunity” number, we may never, and our focus should be on vaccinating as many people as possible as quickly as possible without worrying about some threshold number.
  • Making vaccines accessible & easy & providing some incentives (donuts!) should be the next phase of vaccine push. Let’s wait to worry about the hard-core resistance until we make some progress on groups who are willing but not breaking down the door.
  • If it is your family who is hesitant, you can try to provide them information. But in the end, you may need to make a thoughtful decision about the limits you want to set, and stick to them. You can combine this with the healthy approach of screaming obscenities into your pillow.

Herd Immunity

“Herd immunity” refers to the situation where enough people are immune — either through infection or vaccination — that disease protection extends to the non-immunized. The share of the population who needs to be immune in order to deliver this varies by disease; if a disease is very infectious, a larger share of the population needs immunity in order to protect the unvaccinated. For measles, for example, most estimates suggest we need over 90% vaccination for herd immunity. This number is lower for the flu.

It is unclear what the COVID-19 herd immunity level is. In writing this, I asked two experts I really trust and one told me 50% and the other 80 to 85%. This is a big range! Most estimates I have seen are around 60% to 70% but, again, it isn’t clear what this is based on.

Perhaps more importantly, moving from a herd immunity number to a “number need to be vaccinated” is difficult.

This translation depends, first, on the vaccine efficacy against illness. If a vaccine is 95% effective against any disease then you’d need 63% vaccinated to get to 60% immune. If the vaccine is only 80% effective, then you’d need 75% vaccinated.

It also depends on the share of people who have already had COVID-19, since they are also protected even if they aren’t vaccinated. Beyond this, it depends on the correlation between vaccination status and past COVID-19 illness. If the vaccine-refusers are the same people who already had COVID then that’s (paradoxically, perhaps) better for public health because they have some immunity (they should still be vaccinated).

Other factors — spatial distribution, for example, and levels of interaction —also matter.

But even without knowing all these factors, it seems likely herd immunity will be a challenge in the short run. Twenty percent of the population (kids under 16) are not vaccine eligible yet and there is clearly some pretty staunch vaccine resistance in the US (not to mention low vaccination rates worldwide).

In my view, however, the focus on some (unknown!) herd immunity number should be put aside in favor of a focus on vaccinating as fast as possible. This particular number is neither a magic bullet nor necessary to make enormous progress.

Israel has 50% fully vaccinated as of last week and clearly, there are huge benefits to this vaccination, even if we do not think it’s at herd immunity threshold yet.

On the flip side, 80% immune is better than 60%, even if herd immunity kicks in at a lower level. Herd immunity also doesn’t mean zero COVID and strategies like testing are going to continue to be important for months and years to come.

The exact herd immunity number may be of academic interest, but our goal should simply be: more vaccines.

How Can we Encourage Vaccination?

Okay, so: how to increase vaccination rates?

More supply is the first answer. But encouraging demand is going to be necessary. The most stark fact for me is that 25% of the US House of Representatives has not chosen to be vaccinated despite months of eligibility. This is bad.

I’ve found it helpful in thinking about this problem to consider, basically, three broad groups: the vaccine-eager, vaccine-neutral and vaccine-hesitant. This is a simplification! But it might help us think about solutions.

The first group, the vaccine-eager, really want vaccines. Some of this group has already been vaccinated; the already vaccinated group has been disproportionally white and wealthy, almost certainly due to access issues. If you need to be up at 2:30 am refreshing seven websites to get an appointment, that’s going to favor certain groups. This aspect of the roll-out has been unfair. As we look to expansions in supply, we should be mindful of how we use them. Hopefully, such expansions will mean that within a few weeks anyone who really wants a vaccine can get one.

The second group I’m going to call the vaccine-neutral. People who aren’t actively opposed to the vaccine, but aren’t seeking it out, either. I’ve been doing some volunteering at a vaccine clinic, helping people sign up for second doses. When I ask people if they’re happy to have a first dose, some definitely are, but for many others it’s just…fine. They’re not anxious or unhappy, it just doesn’t seem that important.

There is a policy temptation (at least among some) to try to convince this group that vaccines are important. This is a nice goal, but it’s probably very hard to do, in part because this group just isn’t thinking about this that much.

I would suggest that, instead, we simply try to make it easy and provide incentives. What would this mean?

  • Ease of Access: Better sign-up procedure. More pop-up sites. More accessible locations. More use of the one-shot Johnson & Johnson vaccine in places where it may be hard to get people to return for a second dose.

    Example: There has been a lot of bemoaning of spring break crowds in Miami Beach this week. I obviously agree this behavior is not COVID-appropriate, but what if we got some mobile vans with J&J shots down to the party venues?

    We are going to need to start bringing the vaccine to the people, rather than asking them to find it. Improving access will also start on the path to improving vaccine equity, since we can hopefully target pop-up sites to underserved areas and communities of color.

  • Incentives: Give people stuff for being vaccinated. Example: Krispy Kreme says you can get a free donut every day if you’ve been vaccinated. Some of the fun police oppose this on the grounds that donuts are bad for you, but I think it is great. Publix has offered its workers monetary incentives to get vaccinated. At a minimum, employers should give their employees time off for vaccination.

I’m sure I’m missing other creative ideas. Bottom line: make it easy, make it fun(ish). This is something we can start thinking about now, and should be our next top priority. It should be possible to get this group vaccinated, if we do it right.

Then we get to group 3: the vaccine-hesitant. (I do not like the term anti-vaxxer; it’s politicized and unnecessarily pejorative). There was a lot of talk initially about vaccine hesitancy in the Black community, which has historic reasons to distrust vaccines and health care in general. As vaccines have rolled out, though, this seems to have improved (see this article as an example) and there is a hope that addressing issues of access will improve this further. In the most recent data, vaccine resistance lies much more along party lines than anything else.

What can be done? For people who are nervous rather than actively opposed, progress can probably be made by simply waiting and exposing the vast number of safe vaccines which have been administered. Role models may help. This paper shows that Black men are more likely to sign up for preventative care services if matched with a Black doctor; if this extends to COVID vaccination, vaccine promotion efforts like this one are crucial.

The more actively opposed are much harder. We know from childhood vaccine resistance that giving people in these groups information about vaccine safety tends to actually backfire.

In the end, the last mile of vaccines may have to happen with more active encouragement. After a large measles outbreak in 2015, California ultimately achieved high vaccination rates in schools by, basically, mandating them. I’m not suggesting we do this now (in fact, it would be impossible given that the vaccines are approved only under Emergency Use Authorization). But as we look to the long term, it is something we need to consider.

What about my family members?

It’s all well and good to write about how we can impact vaccine rates with policy, but what if it is your parents (or sister or uncle or etc, etc.) who doesn’t want to be vaccinated?

(Related questions have come up with caregivers; this is an overlapping but slightly different situation. Similarly if the resistant party is your partner and not some more extended family, it’s different. I’m going to focus on the extended family situation here, but there are always alter posts…)

Obviously if the issue is access, then that’s something you can help fix. But the questions I’m getting these days are not about inability of family members to access vaccines but about their active opposition.

I do not have a magic bullet. This is a hard problem. It is frustrating and annoying. No one can drive us crazier than our own family. Take a deep breath.

I have two thoughts on framing here, which may help.

First: You do not need them to agree with you, you just need them to get the shot. This lesson is in part why I started with the policy discussion. When we think about the the “vaccine neutral” group above, we should fight our instincts to spend time convincing them vaccines are great. Who cares? If people get the shot, then they have it.

It may drive you out of your mind that one of your parents thinks the Pfizer mRNA delivery technology is some kind of liberal voodoo, but if they’ll get the Johnson and Johnson vaccine because they trust the company then that is fine. Paradoxically, arguing about the merits can make people dig into their position and make things worse.

Second: you can control the rules for your family, and that’s about it. In the end, if relatives will not be vaccinated, all you can do is set your own limits. It’s not dissimilar to how people advise setting them with kids: take time to decide what your rules are, what you feel safe and comfortable doing, and then be consistent.

Here are some possible rules:

  • No grandchildren visits at all until grandparents are vaccinated, period.
  • No indoor visits until grandparents vaccinated
  • No indoor visits until grandchildren vaccinated
  • Visits only with 10 day quarantine & testing in advance [i.e. as if vaccines do not exist]
  • Visits only with 7 day quarantine, testing, and only if case rates are below some threshold
  • etc, etc

There are infinite possibilities here, and what you decide is going to depend some on your risk tolerance, some on the situation in your location and some on your relationship with said relatives. You might hold a harder line with a more distant relative, where seeing them isn’t as important. Your rules may be different if you (the adults in the household) are vaccinated. It may also matter if the people in question have had COVID-19 illness; recovered people should still have the vaccine, but previous infection confers some protection.

As with most of my advice about decision-making, I’d suggest you take time with this, make a decision that works for you and then stick to it and move on.

The pandemic has provided many moments when control is wrested from us and this may be another. It’s frustrating to feel like there is a solution available and someone isn’t taking it for reasons which seem wrong or crazy to you. But like with everything else, there is value to recognizing what you can control and working on that.

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NO QUARANTINES!!!

Emily Oster

Instagram

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For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
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If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
...

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
...

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
...

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
...

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
...

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
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When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
...

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
...

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
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What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
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What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...