Vaccines, Boosters, Pregnancy, and Risk

Emily Oster

10 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

Vaccines, Boosters, Pregnancy, and Risk

Emily Oster

10 min Read
In the past few weeks, the CDC has made a big push to encourage vaccination among pregnant people. The agency noted higher risks for this group and much lower vaccination rates than the age-matched general population. It’s begging pregnant people to get vaccinated. Yet there remains a lot of fear and confusion; an article in The Guardian captures this well. Similar to with pediatric vaccination, there are people who would have no hesitation while not pregnant who have been more wary in pregnancy.

On top of this push for more baseline vaccines in pregnant people, we now face another choice. If you’re pregnant and already vaccinated (with Pfizer), should you get a booster?

I’m going to get into both questions below. (I’ve also written about vaccines in pregnancy before, when information was less available, back in December and April.)

First-time vaccination in pregnancy

I’ll start by talking through the first question. I’m pregnant and unvaccinated: Should I get vaccinated during pregnancy and, if so, when? Is it safe?

Most (all?) decisions come down to weighing the costs and benefits. In thinking about this one, it makes sense to begin with the benefits. The fact is that the benefits of vaccination are higher in pregnancy than if one was not pregnant. We have increasing evidence that pregnant people are at somewhat higher risk for serious illness and hospitalization than comparable non-pregnant people.

Some of these claims about excess risk are overstated. There is an oft-quoted statistic that 20% of pregnant women with COVID are hospitalized. But this is from early data and didn’t differentiate between hospitalized for COVID and hospitalized for other reasons (like, you know, childbirth).

However: we now have better evidence showing that serious illness and death is more common in pregnancy. For example, an analysis of 400,000 people with symptomatic COVID-19 showed that those who were pregnant were three times as likely to be admitted to the ICU and 1.7 times as likely to die. Other, international data has shown serious risks to both mom and baby with COVID-19 infection. The U.K. is reporting this week that 20% of critically ill COVID patients are pregnant women.

It is true that the magnitude of risk of serious illness is still small in this population, mostly because pregnant people are usually young. But that risk is higher among the unvaccinated. The most recent CDC report suggested that 97% of pregnant people hospitalized with COVID were unvaccinated. Vaccines do an excellent job of protecting against serious illness.

That’s the benefit side. I think this is widely accepted, and probably not the main source of vaccine hesitancy. Instead, the concern is safety. How do we know the vaccines are safe in pregnancy?

Pregnant people were not included in the original vaccine trials. This is standard practice for medical trials, but it’s frustrating, since it leaves us with less certainty and information than we could have. But this is different from saying we have no information.

The first and probably most important thing to say is: all the data we do have is reassuring. At this point, millions of pregnant people have been vaccinated worldwide. That is perhaps the most reassuring thing to note. When we do millions and millions of vaccines and pay careful attention to safety data, we learn a lot about even rare complications. With the COVID-19 vaccine, for example, we’ve learned that there is a very rare complication of myocarditis in young men. But despite the millions of vaccines, we haven’t seen any such risks in pregnant people. Given the (appropriately) intense scrutiny, this is reassuring on its own.

More systematically: we have early follow-up data from the v-safe pregnancy registry, and preliminary analysis points to no increased risk of complications. A paper in the New England Journal of Medicine in April indicated no increased risk of complications at birth. That paper also reported some data on miscarriage rates but, as I pointed out and the researchers later acknowledged, the data at the time wasn’t sufficient to draw conclusions about that outcome.

However, an August update of these results was able to look at miscarriage, and more conclusively show that the miscarriage risk in the vaccinated group did not exceed the expected baseline risk. In other words, there wasn’t a link in the data between vaccination and pregnancy loss.

This isn’t the only type of data we have to rely on, either. We have evidence from animals, evidence from lab studies of vaccines, small numbers of pregnancies in the vaccine trials, and so on. This article provides a full summary of what we know and what is underway. The bottom line is that everything we know is reassuring, and there are trials underway in pregnant people, so we’ll know more later. Vaccines have been given at all stages during pregnancy. People have sometimes expressed worry about getting a fever side effect during the first trimester, but the best data we have doesn’t point to a link there. If you want to get vaccinated, any time is a good time.

Having said all this, it’s important to acknowledge what we do not and cannot know. We cannot with certainty rule out some long-term issue. To be clear, there is absolutely no reason to think such an issue would arise. But that’s different from saying we can rule it out. In recognizing this, we should also be clear that there is no data that would definitively rule out all concerns. Even if we had 10 years of randomized follow-up data, you could always worry about year 11. Fighting against this is the observation that we also cannot rule out any long-term complications of getting COVID during pregnancy.

There will always, no matter what, be these “known unknowns.”

What’s the bottom line? If you asked me for advice and you were an unvaccinated pregnant person, here is what I would say:

You’re more at risk from COVID when pregnant than when not, so from the COVID-prevention standpoint, there is an additional benefit to being vaccinated now. And while we cannot ever be 100% sure we can rule out any complications from the vaccine, the same is true for ruling out complications from COVID. What we do know is that millions of pregnant people have been vaccinated, and all the data we have seen suggests that the vaccine doesn’t cause issues for mom or baby, and it protects you from COVID. For these reasons, I recommend you get vaccinated. 

Booster shots

Now let’s turn to the other side.

For pregnant people who are vaccinated, the next question is whether they should get a booster. It’s a question that is coming for us all, but it’s especially salient in pregnancy because (a) you may be at higher risk, (b) there are questions about protection of the fetus, and (c) pregnancy is considered a high-risk condition, so pregnant people are in the currently eligible booster group.

[Note: Currently boosters are recommended only if you’ve had the Pfizer vaccine (booster recommendations for other vaccines are likely coming in the next few weeks), so this is largely relevant to those people.]

To begin: We have no direct data or especially strong recommendations. Boosters are relatively recent, and at least in the U.S. we do not, so far, have systematic data on their use in pregnant people. The CDC recommendation includes pregnant people as a group that may get a booster, but they do not rise to the level of those who should (older or immunocompromised individuals). Any decision here is going to need to rely on inference from other areas.

In terms of safety, there isn’t any reason to think a booster would have a different safety profile in this population than the initial vaccine, and, truth be told, anyone who is contemplating it is probably already sold on safety. For people in this group, the more salient question is probably whether there are benefits to doing so.

One possible benefit is to address waning immunity. This is a complicated issue in general. It’s becoming clear that the protection afforded by vaccines against any infection wanes over time but that they remain extremely effective at preventing hospitalization and death. For the very elderly or immunocompromised, a third dose of the vaccine seems to be recommended to prompt a good immune response. Are pregnant people in this group? Is their risk sufficiently elevated that they should get a booster? Opinions differ, but even with an elevated risk, an otherwise healthy pregnant person has nowhere near the baseline risk of someone in their 80s or 90s. Their argument for a booster is more limited.

Perhaps more interesting is the argument for a booster based on infant protection. Thinking this through, we consider the parallel to other illnesses. A Tdap booster shot is recommended for pregnant people between the 27th and 36th week of pregnancy, to protect their infant against whooping cough (the “p” is pertussis). This booster shot prompts the development of antibodies against pertussis in the mother, which are passed to the fetus during gestation.

The immunity gained by infants in this way isn’t long-lasting; when antibodies decay, after about six months, they will no longer have this immunity. This is different from what happens when they are vaccinated themselves, when they develop both antibodies and T-cell and B-cell memory cells, which can produce new antibodies if needed. But in the case of whooping cough, the immunity from maternal antibodies is enough to tide them over until their own vaccines.

There is a lot of reason to think that COVID vaccines would work the same way. If you were vaccinated in a first wave and are pregnant now, you probably have limited antibodies circling around (you’re still protected! just by the B- and T-cells). If you get a booster, you’ll re-up your antibodies. And then those antibodies could pass to your infant and provide them with some protection early in life.

How much immunity? How important is that? Numerically, we do not know. This is based on inference and logic and the fact that we know infants can have COVID antibodies from vaccinated mothers. So we cannot be certain about any of it. More studies! Need more studies!!

Any decisions about a booster should be made in consultation with your doctor; this feels like a complicated choice, where people will do things differently. I will say: if I were pregnant now (I’m not; the shop over here is decidedly closed), I would go to my doctor with a proposal of a booster in the same time frame as the Tdap booster. But that’s just me.

A concluding thought

As with vaccinating kids, I think it is natural that there is more hesitation about the COVID vaccine in pregnancy. It feels like a more fragile state, and there is the ever-present fear that you’ll make a choice that somehow, in some way, is damaging to your baby.

The important difference between this group and kids is the level of risk from COVID infection itself, which elevates the benefit of vaccines. But even with such benefit, the fear can be hard to overcome, especially for people whose OBs are not encouraging vaccination.

In the end, beyond the question of COVID, I think there is a lesson to learn about how we treat pregnant people in studies like these vaccine trials. There are concerns about the ethics of including this group in trials, but there are very clear risks in the other direction too. We’ve left pregnant people making this choice with information that many of them (and some of their doctors) find insufficient. And that’s wrong.

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NO QUARANTINES!!!

Emily Oster

Instagram

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For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
...

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
...

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
...

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
...

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
...

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
...

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
...

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
...

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
...

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
...

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
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What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...