Vaccines, Kids & A Refresher on the Five Step Decision System

Emily Oster

12 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

Vaccines, Kids & A Refresher on the Five Step Decision System

Emily Oster

12 min Read

This last week has been a bit of a mish-mash for me. On the one hand, the energy of the new administration, the refocus on science has left me feeling hopeful. The fact that higher-risk members of my family are starting to get vaccinated is just awesome. At the same time, there are moments it just feels like this will never end. It’s petty, but I miss traveling so, so much. I know I’m lucky — so lucky — but there are definitely moments where it is hard to see that.

Also, the other night I had a dream that I had a positive COVID test but then they told me it was a false positive because I was eating too much lettuce. What does that even mean?

I mention this because in a way it relates to the topic of today’s newsletter: more stuff about vaccines. I’ve been getting a lot of questions. Nearly all of them are of the form: When will it be enough? When will we get to herd immunity? What about kids — it seems like they will not be vaccinated until the fall — does this mean we can’t do anything until then?

A lot of these questions stem, in my view, from poor communications (I’ll take some blame here like everyone else). We’ve been hearing the message “Even when you’re vaccinated, don’t go crazy” and interpreting it as “The vaccine will not be enough for a return to normalcy” or “We cannot return to anything closer to normalcy until everyone in the country is vaccinated.” Neither of these is true.

To see why, I want to talk through first a bit on herd immunity and how we think about policy around vaccines. Then I want to dig into how vaccines might change your family behavior — including the issues around kids. I’ll come back at the end to why understanding this is so important.

Quick note: when I say “vaccinated” here, I mean fully vaccinated. Two doses + at least a week or so after second dose for it to sink in.

Vaccines & Herd Immunity By the Numbers

I want to start by establishing two points.

  1. COVID-19 vaccines prevent any disease with very high probability and serious disease almost completely.
  2. Being vaccinated for COVID-19 lowers your risk of spreading the virus to others.

The first of these I think is clear to most people. The second has gotten a bit flubbled in the telling. Part of the reason is we do not (yet) know by vaccination decreases the risk of getting infected. Vaccines prevent disease by priming your body to fight disease when it arrives, so it is possible that people who are vaccinated for COVID-19 could still get infected, just not get sick.

However, despite this uncertainty the second point above is true for two reasons. First, based on what we know about other vaccines it seems extremely likely that the vaccine prevents infection to some extent. But, second, even if that isn’t the case, the vaccine prevents symptoms. Asymptomatic people transmit perhaps 75 or 80% less than symptomatic people. This means even if the vaccine had no effect on infection (again, really unlikely) it would lower transmission to others by 75 to 80%.

The risk of transmission from vaccinated people probably isn’t zero, and we certainly do not have the data yet to put a precise number on it, but it’s a LOT LOWER than if you are not vaccinated.

Given these two points, we can start to see what’s happening as we vaccinate people.

Let’s imagine we have 100 people, and over each time period (say, a day or a week) each person interacts with 10 other people. Now introduce someone with COVID-19, and imagine we have no vaccines. Given their interaction pattern, we’d expect this person to infect perhaps 1.5 other people. Then, those people infect an average of 1.5 other people, and so on. Pretty soon, everyone has the virus. And perhaps 5 or 6 people are hospitalized, and one dies.

That’s the no-vaccine extreme. The other extreme is the “everyone-is-vaccinated” case. There, even if someone shows up with COVID-19, we’ll never see it. It doesn’t matter how much they transmit, since no one will get seriously ill. We all agree that’s a good case, but we are far, far from this.

But, in fact, even partial vaccination is really really valuable.

Think about a case where 40% of the population is vaccinated and imagine that their risk of transmission is reduced by 80%. Note that this is actually quite conservative, since it basically assumes they are equally likely to be infected, but are just not symptomatic. In this case, when infection is introduced to the population, rather than each infected person infecting 1.5 people on average, they each infect only 1.02 person on average (since the vaccinated people transmit at a lower rate). This means the virus will not grow nearly as quickly.

And that’s just what happens if we vaccinate 40% of people at random. Now imagine we vaccinate 40% of people focusing on those most likely to get sick and those who interact with the most other people. By vaccinating the second group, we lower transmission even more. By vaccinating the first group, we see decreases in hospitalization and death.

Given the huge variation in serious illness risk across groups, even a relatively limited amount of vaccination can start to make a difference in hospitalization and death. (Case in point: 40% of COVID-19 deaths have been in nursing homes, and long term care facilities, and these house less than 1% of the US population. So vaccinating even that tiny group would potentially matter a lot for death rates).

Bottom line: as we get to 10, 20, 50 percent vaccinated, we are moving towards a situation where disease rates are likely to be much, much lower and where those who do get infected are much, much less likely to be seriously ill. Basically, rather than seeing high hospitalization rates and new deaths every day, we’ll see some milder infection continue to circulate in lower risk groups. But at lower rates. And with much less severe consequences.

In this context, we can think about the questions around children. Kids are much less likely to get infected and less likely to get serious illness even if they are infected. It’s true that it will be a long time before they are vaccinated, but the combination of overall lower infection rates will help them. And given their extremely low risk, it is going to make sense to reopen more things even if there is a chance that kids will get COVID-19.

Consider, schools (yes, I know, I’m one note). I’ve started to see some murmurings about not going back to school until all kids are vaccinated. This would be terrible policy. I think schools should try to open now. But certainly at a point where teachers plus any other high risk family members are vaccinated, the risks to having kids at school are extremely small. Will they still have to wear masks? I think this is unclear. My guess is no, but it’s hard to predict.

All this is to say: from a societal standpoint, we do not need 100% vaccination to start returning toward normal. This will come in pieces. We’re going to need higher vaccination rates to start having, say, large indoor concerts with alcohol consumption.

Personal Choices

The basics of herd immunity are good background here, but most of the questions I get are fairly specific: should I change how I think about grandparents or child care or even — gasp! — summer vacation. For many families in situations like mine, we’re facing a slow roll of vaccinations. Fingers crossed that the grandparents will be vaccinated in the next couple of months and there is perhaps some chance that by the summer the lower risk adults will be. But kids are going to wait until the fall for sure, if not later. So, how to think about it?

To do this, I want to step back to the very first Grandparents & Day Care post I put together in May. Remember the 5 step decision process? It’s still relevant here. Frame the question, mitigate risk, evaluate risk, evaluate benefits, decide.

Consider the first question: seeing the grandparents, and now let’s imagine that they are vaccinated but none of the rest of you are. The question is now likely something like “Should we see them now or wait until more of us are vaccinated?” Your options to mitigate risk are similar to before — indoor visits riskier than outdoor visits, hand washing and possibly mask wearing are important, etc.

What has really changed is the evaluate risk stage. In that original post I tried to put together some numbers on the size of risks and argued, basically, the big risks in this equation were to the grandparents. COVID-19 is most serious for older people. Putting exact numbers on it is difficult, but a November piece in Nature estimated the case fatality rates by age. They were 1 in 100,000 for kids aged 5 to 9, about 1 in 10,000 for people in their 30s and 40s, versus about 1 in 10 for people over 80. All of the adult fatality rates are variable with other comorbidities; if you are healthy to begin with, they are lower.

All of this is to say that when we thought about this decision before vaccines, the risk evaluation was heavily weighted towards the possible really, really bad outcome of your 85 year old father getting COVID. If that is effectively eliminated, it dramatically lowers the risks.

On top of this, as noted above, once the grandparents are vaccinated they are less likely to spread the disease. This means the chance of spread at the visit is correspondingly lower.

This personal risk calculation is going to continue to change as more people are vaccinated in the group. Once everyone over the age of, say, 20 is vaccinated you’re down to some very, very low risks. Could you think about traveling over the summer, even if the kids are not yet vaccinated? I do not think it is a crazy idea. Is the risk of them getting infected literally zero? No, of course not. But its a very, very small number, multiplied by the also very, very small chance of serious illness.

To go to the extreme: consider a family with low-risk children (if your child is high-risk, this calculus is more complicated). If kids are the only unvaccinated ones, you now are facing a world where there is a disease with a small risk of making your child mildly ill. Pre-COVID, you already lived in that world — there are many diseases which your child is at higher risk for and would make them sicker than COVID-19. Considering only your family, there is a case for returning to normal.

The five step decision process doesn’t make the decision for you, and it’s very personal. There’s also the benefits to consider. Some people may decide, for various reasons, they still feel the risk is too high or the benefits to doing various things seem small. Waiting until everyone is vaccinated is a choice some may make.

But there is no question the risks associated with this activity are much, much lower once some high-risk members have been vaccinated. So reasonable people who avoided seeing family before may well — rationally — decide to see them now.

The Bigger Picture

David Leonhardt wrote last week about our “underselling” of vaccines. His point was that by emphasizing they may not literally prevent all spread, we lead people to think vaccines are less good than they are. This seems important to me, although at this point our barriers to vaccination are mostly supply and not demand.

A related issue with underselling is we limit hope. This gets back a bit to the top of my post. Mental health issues are real; people are really, really struggling. Sending the message that it will always be like this not matter what and you can never see your grandchildren again is damaging.

My sense, though, is that the biggest danger here is that we set incorrect expectations. I fear that, at times, we’re moving toward messaging like “We can reopen when there is no more COVID-19.” This is, quite possibly, never. We can imagine getting to a place with very little serious illness and very little spread, but even with great vaccines we still see some measles and pertussis. And we should expect some coronavirus in circulation also.

To be clear, I’m not pushing something like the Great Barrington Declaration, suggesting we reopen with abandon and just let COVID ride. But there is a big gap between that and saying we can start seeing our families a bit more after the high-risk populations are vaccinated. We already take some risks — we drive cars and ride bikes and go out during flu season — without thinking about them too much. There is a delicate balance here, since for many reasons it would be a mistake to suggest that once you’re vaccinated you can just do whatever you want.

But I think it’s also a mistake — both personally and as a society — to go too much in the other direction. We need to learn to think about this risk rationally in both directions. There is too much COVID denial out there — see this second Leonhardt piece about lack of mask wearing. But also, sometime, not enough recognition of the hope and the ways our behavior can safely change as the vaccine rolls out.

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Updated CDC Guidelines for School and Child Care

NO QUARANTINES!!!

Emily Oster

Instagram

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For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
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If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
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Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
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As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
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It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents

It was an absolute pleasure to be featured on the @tamronhallshow! We talked about all things data-driven parenting and, in this clip, what I call the plague of secret parenting. To balance having a career and having a family, we can’t hide the fact that we’re parents. If mothers and fathers at the top can speak more openly about child-care obligations, it will help us all set a new precedent.

Watch the full segment at the link in my bio 🔗

#tamronhall #tamronhallshow #emilyoster #parentingsupport #workingparents
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Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor

Invisible labor. It’s the work — in our households especially — that has to happen but that no one sees. It’s making the doctor’s appointment, ensuring birthday cards are purchased, remembering the milk.

My guest on this episode, @everodsky, has come up with a solution here, or at least a way for us to recognize the problem and make our own solutions. I’ve wanted to speak with Eve for ages, since I read her book Fair Play. We had a great conversation about the division of household labor, one I think you’ll get a lot out of!

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentdatapodcast #parentingpodcast #householdtips #fairplay #invisiblelabor
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Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better.  Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough. 

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips

Prenatal vitamins 💊 If there is any product that seems designed to prey on our fears, it’s this one. You’re newly pregnant and you want to do it right. Everyone agrees you need prenatal vitamins, so you get them. But do you want to be that person who just… buys the generic prenatal vitamins?

Good news: fancier vitamins are not better. Folic acid is the most important prenatal ingredient. Iron (with vitamin C) and DHA are also nice to have. Other included ingredients have only weak or no evidence to support their use. (If you do not consume animal products, add B12, plus a few others depending on your diet.)

Vitamins are just vitamins. Any prenatal vitamin that contains these is enough.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article with everything you need to know about prenatal vitamins.

#emilyoster #parentdata #prenatalvitamins #pregnancydiet #pregnancytips
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When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips

When it comes to introducing your newborn to the world, timing matters. It’s a good idea to minimize germ exposure in the first 6-8 weeks; after that, it’s inevitable and, very likely, a good idea! This doesn’t mean you need to be trapped inside. The most significant exposure risks are from seeing other people at home — family, etc. These interactions are not infinitely risky, but they do pose more risk than a walk or a trip to the grocery store, since they involve closer interaction. Think simple and make sure everyone is washing their hands before holding the baby. 💛

#parentdata #emilyoster #newborncare #parentingadvice #parentingtips
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The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth

The first edition of Hot Flash is out now! Comment “Link” for a DM to learn more about the late-reproductive stage.

There are times when we expect hormonal shifts. Our reproductive lives are bookended by puberty and menopause. We discuss those changes often because they are definitive and dramatic — a first period is something many of us remember clearly. But between ages 13 and 53, our hormones are changing in more subtle ways. During the late-reproductive stage (in your 40s), you can expect a lot of changes in your menstrual cycle, including the length and symptoms you experience throughout. It’s an important time in our lives that is often overlooked!

🔥 Hot Flash from ParentData is a weekly newsletter on navigating your health and hormones in the post-reproductive years. Written by Dr. Gillian Goddard, Hot Flash provides all of the information you need to have a productive, evidence-based conversation about hormonal health with your doctor.

#emilyoster #parentdata #hotflash #perimenopause #womenshealth
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There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata

There are plenty of reels telling you how to parent. Plenty of panic headlines saying that “studies show” what’s best for your kid. Even good data, from a trusted source, can send us into a spiral of comparison. But I want you to remember that no one knows your kid better than you. It’s important to absorb the research, but only you will know the approach that works best for you and your child. 💙

Now tell me in the comments: what’s a parenting move you’ve made recently that feels right to you?

#parentingcommunity #parentingsupport #parentingquotes #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships

Let’s talk about sex (after) baby! Today on the podcast, I was lucky enough to speak with @enagoski about her new book on sexual connection in long-term relationships. Especially after having kids, this is something many people struggle with. Emily tells us to stop worrying about what’s “normal” and focus on pleasure in its many forms.

Listen and subscribe to ParentData with Emily Oster in your favorite podcast app 🎧

#parentdata #parentdatapodcast #emilyoster #emilynagoski #comeasyouare #cometogether #longtermrelationship #intimacy #relationships
...

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles

Ever wondered if you can safely use leftover baby formula? 🍼 The CDC says to throw out unused formula immediately because of the risk of bacterial growth. However, research suggests that bacterial concentrations do not appreciably increase after 3, 12, or even 24 hours at refrigerator temperatures. Good news! This means there’s not a strong data-based reason to throw out formula right away if you store it in the fridge.

Comment “Link” for a DM to an article on another common formula question: should you throw away old formula powder?

#emilyoster #parentdata #babyformula #babyfeeding #parentingstruggles
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What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity

What’s the most important piece of advice for new parents? Here’s one answer, but I want to hear from you! Share your suggestions in the comments ⬇️

#emilyoster #parentdata #parentingtips #parentingadvice #newparents #parentingcommunity
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What's in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you.

What`s in the bag of a Vagina Economist? 👀 Someone please tell me this looks familiar to you. ...