The Best Potty Training Advice

Emily Oster

4 min Read Emily Oster

Emily Oster

The Best Potty Training Advice

Techniques, tips, and survey data

Emily Oster

4 min Read

Many parents plan to potty train on a 3-week day weekend. If that’s you, I hope you find this helpful!

I have talked to many people about potty training over the years. I have toilet trained two children. I have done research on it, read papers, collected data (below, but also when I was writing Cribsheet). If I had to summarize these experiences in a single sentence, it is this: Why the f**k is this so hard?

Often, the struggles of potty training come as a surprise. Nearly every person on the planet over the age of about 5 uses the toilet multiple times every day. It’s just … a thing you do. And yet. When you actually try to get a child to move away from diapers, it is somehow like a Mt. Everest-size challenge. It also has the feature of seeming so irrational. Some children are afraid to poop in the toilet; I asked an expert about this once, and they told me that in some cases, for kids, kids it feels like losing a limb — like, the poop leaving your body into another vessel is like losing an arm. This is insane.

On top of this, the evidence-based guidance around toilet training is poor. With sleep, which has a bit of the same feeling of irrationality, we have a lot of research on what works to improve it. It’s not perfect, and there is no magic solution, but there are certain best practices. For the toilet, there isn’t much data at all on what works, on what the right timing is, on what to do if things aren’t going well. There are books, of course — Oh Crap!, Potty Training in 3 Days — that can give you a plan, but if you’re looking for strong evidence that one of these works better than others, you will not find it in the medical literature.

This is too bad, and I wish there were more good randomized evidence. It doesn’t seem very hard to imagine running a study on varying methods, but this is an example of a place where I’m not sure who would fund it. There is no “Big Potty” looking to invest.

In lieu of this, as a very partial step, I ran a survey. The goal of the survey was not to provide randomized data on what works, but to collate advice or feedback on success from a large sample of people. We had about 6,000 respondents to the survey, at varying stages of their potty training journey. Most had completed training. Below, I’m going to report on their experiences — when they started, how long it took, what methods they tried, and what worked well. I’ll also try to normalize the prevalence of some common toilet struggles, even if we cannot answer them.

Setting the stage

To begin, I want to describe the sample a bit and also the significant limitations. This survey is a convenience sample. I advertised for respondents in this newsletter and on my social media outlets. This is definitely not a random sample of people; the audience is not randomly selected, and those who chose to participate are not randomly selected. In this way, it is similar to the sex survey I did several months ago.

At the start of the survey, we asked people to tell us where they were on their potty training journey. The pie chart below shows the shares — most people who responded (64%) had completed potty training; this is the sample I’m going to focus most on below.


It is worth noting that within each of these groups, there is a wide range of ages. Even ignoring extreme outliers, we see people with children who are 36 months who have not yet started to potty train, and we see people with children just over 2 reporting that their child is fully trained. Pretty much no matter where you are, you’re not alone.

How long potty training takes, techniques, and more

It’s always helpful to know people are with you, but this is a case where it may also be helpful to see who is on the other side (and how they got there). To look at that, the rest of this post is going to limit to people who say their child is fully potty trained during the day. Note this is a selected sample, but it is selected to be where you want to be when you’re starting up. So what happened with them?

Age of starting and length of time

The figure below shows the relationship between the age of starting potty training and the median time it took to fully train (using the toilet consistently for both peeing and pooping). The sample sizes in each group can be seen under the horizontal axes. The most common time to start training is between 25 and 30 months, with relatively few people starting before 18 months or after 42 (that is, 3.5 years). The graph shows this overall, and for both boys and girls.*


There is a strong basic pattern here: the later you wait to start, the shorter time it takes. On average, people who start at under 18 months report it takes them about 12 weeks for their child to be fully trained. For those who start between 3 and 3.5, it’s more like nine days. These median numbers mask a lot of variation. In all of these age groups, there is a range of length of time from a few days to over a year.

Two other things I note here: First, these numbers are pretty big. Sometimes I feel parents are sold a bill of goods about toilet training — that if you do it right, it’s a few days. That is true for some people, even in these data! But it is not the norm. Second, we often hear that boys are slower to train than girls. That shows up a bit in these data, at the younger ages in particular. Once kids get older than 2, the time is similar.

Peeing and pooping

The refusal to poop in the toilet has a name: stool toileting refusal, or STR. When someone told me about this before kids, I thought it must be very rare — because, see my comment above, it sounded insane.

It’s not rare! In this sample: 70% of people said their child learned to pee and poop in the toilet at around the same time; 16% said that pooping was delayed but happened within a month; and 14% said that pooping in the toilet was delayed by more than a month after the child was fully trained for pee.

This is an especially challenging issue for parents because trying to force it can lead to other issues, like constipation. I’ve written more about this elsewhere, if you’re struggling with it (like 30% of the rest of the parents here).

What did you try, and what worked?

Before starting this survey, we identified a set of common things that people tried in their potty training efforts, things like rewards or having their kids go naked. We asked them to identify everything they tried (which could be many things, and it definitely was) and then which of these things they thought worked best.

The first graph below shows the share of people who tried each of these options. Note that these do not add to 100% since most people tried many things. Almost 80% of people tried having their kid go naked. Taking away diapers, immediate rewards, and providing activities on the toilet are also popular. A much smaller share of parents indicated that they used a promise of long-term rewards, or used consequences or a wetting alarm.


When asked what worked best, we can see in the graph below that going naked also wins here. Notably, though, immediate rewards outperformed taking away diapers as a favorite. Activities and long-term rewards performed less well.

We’ll get to more of your quotes below, but I thought the value of immediate rewards was perhaps best summarized by the quote from this person: I wish there was anything in life I wanted as much as my child wants an M&M. Deeply true.

Nighttime

One of the most common questions on Instagram: Should my child be trained at night at the same time as during the day?

No.

Being able to stay dry at night is a totally different “skill” than during the day and, in fact, much less of a learned skill and much more something that develops naturally for most people without intervention. Eventually, your body will start to wake you up at night when you need to pee. For most kids, this happens later than they learn to use the toilet during the day.

In this sample, among the children who were fully trained during the day, 62% of respondents said the child still used a diaper at night. Half of those reported that their child always or almost always peed in the diaper overnight. Even for kids over 4, 33% use a diaper at night. We know from other data that this can continue through 5 or 6 for many kids. After the age of 7, it’s worth talking to a pediatrician about it, but up to that point it’s just normal development. That’s what they make pull-ups for.

Reflections on potty training

That’s the data, or the pieces of it I found most helpful and interesting.

At the end of the survey, I left an open prompt — anything else you wanted to say about your potty training experience. Many of you shared, and the narratives reflect and, I think, enrich the data.

There were definitely people who said that potty training was a breeze. Like this person: My kid was so easy to train, I still feel guilty about it. He just “got it” within a day or two and just voluntarily quit nighttime wet diapers a week or so later. This group, though, was the minority (maybe they just didn’t want to share).

A surprising number of people discussed their success with elimination communication, or some form of it. In most cases, these people weren’t trying to fully train their babies but had found some success with even small infants using the potty sometimes. Interesting.

The vast majority of the comments, though, reflected frustration and angst, and loss of control.

Poop potty training has been one of the most exhausting and emotionally draining experiences of my life. We’ve been taking a break the last few months and allowing her to ask for a diaper when she has to go and poop in her room (the bathroom also caused crying and yelling) because everything had become somewhat out of control (constipation, massive anxiety on her part, and a very difficult time not losing tempers on my and my partner’s side; the diaper has helped tremendously in lowering the temperature). We’re about to start again with a hope of getting this done by the next school year, but I’m beyond dreading it.

It is hard. This is like … incredibly hard. We have had a little potty since she turned 2 and we have tried everything. She has Frozen-character underwear, we aren’t yelling or shaming her when she has accidents, we’ve tried letting her run around naked, tried candy and video bribes to get her on the potty, tried having her help clean up her messes. Nothing is working. I cannot make her go on the potty, and I feel like a complete and utter failure when I see my 3-year-old niece, who has been trained for eight months now. I cannot make my kid do this. And people have absolutely nothing good to say to help. Oh, it will just click for her. Oh, they just figure it out. Have you tried letting her watch you? Have you tried this? Yes we have tried everything. My kid was trained at 15 months, why isn’t yours? I can’t get her into preschool like this, I can’t get her into kindergarten like this, and I feel completely worthless as a parent. She will not do it and I cannot make her.

I wanted to reach through the computer to hug that last writer. I remember — from some pooping struggles with one of my children — that feeling of despair around this. How can I see to the other side? 

There were also reflections from that other side. A huge share of these expressed the view that they either wished they had waited until their child was ready, or they were happy they did.

You have to wait until they are ready. Otherwise it becomes a power struggle and no one wins.

This is my third child and I think the most important thing I learned is that the longer you wait, the easier it is! Why the rush?

Finally — and this is the piece that I wish someone had told me when I was going through it — a large number of people talked about the regressions. I was, at the time of doing this, under the impression that one trained the child one time. But that’s not really true for many kids.

We tried and had to stop when she had just turned 2 years old due to her refusal, but training at 3 years, 1 month went well.

She had it down when we did the intensive potty training, then we traveled and she went back to pull-ups and has lost all interest in the potty. She says she’s scared but changes what it is that makes her scared. Won’t even sit on the potty with her diaper on. We’ve tried multiple times, but just no luck. Each time we try now, it seems like she digs her feet more and more into the sand. We feel like failures and just don’t see an end in sight.

Where does this all leave us? I don’t know. Hopefully feeling less alone if the toilet is a struggle, and maybe with more realistic expectations. Many people in the survey indicated they used the “Oh Crap!” potty training method; some loved it, some were more skeptical. In the skeptical group, many people noted that even this method does not actually suggest you can train your child in three days, just that you can set a foundation. If we expect this to be more of a process, maybe we put less pressure on ourselves, and our children.

In conclusion, I will leave you with the words of this mother:

But if I can be brutally honest, I got tired of wiping poop out of twin boys’ wrinkly testicles. I can never get them clean. I was done.


*One obvious concern with this is that by including everyone who is fully trained, we bias toward kids who train fast at younger ages. In practice, this graph looks extremely similar if we limit to kids who are currently over 42 months, which will avoid this issue.

A pink training potty on a white background.

2 min read

What Method of Potty Training Should I Use?

I know, from your prior posts, that one of the things that impacts potty training is the age of the Read more

Emily Oster
Pattern of light blue alarm clocks arranged across a pink background.

Dec 13 2022

2 min read

What’s the Right Time to Potty Train/Sleep Train/Wean Off a Bottle?

Is it a good idea to use the break to potty train/sleep train/wean off a bottle or pacifier? Anonymous Interesting Read more

Emily Oster
A window in a house is lit up in the night with a full moon.

May 12 2023

2 min read

How Can I Nighttime Potty Train My Child?

My 6-year-old still needs a pull-up at night and sleeps so deeply he sometimes pees through his pull-up. Is this Read more

Emily Oster
A bright red training toilet sits on a shelf in front of a light blue wall with painted clouds.

Jun 02 2023

3 min read

Will My Kid Be Harder to Potty Train After Age Three?

Hi Emily! Our son is 2.5 years old and in diapers. We had tried to start potty training around 27 Read more

Emily Oster

Instagram

left right
We are better writers than influencers, I promise. Thanks to our kids for filming our unboxing videos. People make this look way too easy. 

Only two weeks until our book “The Unexpected” is here! Preorder at the link in my bio. 💙

We are better writers than influencers, I promise. Thanks to our kids for filming our unboxing videos. People make this look way too easy.

Only two weeks until our book “The Unexpected” is here! Preorder at the link in my bio. 💙
...

Exciting news! We have new, high-quality data that says it’s safe to take Tylenol during pregnancy and there is no link between Tylenol exposure and neurodevelopmental issues in kids. Comment “Link” for a DM to an article exploring this groundbreaking study.

While doctors have long said Tylenol was safe, confusing studies, panic headlines, and even a lawsuit have continually stoked fears in parents. As a result, many pregnant women have chosen not to take it, even if it would help them.

This is why good data is so important! When we can trust the data, we can trust our choices. And this study shows there is no blame to be placed on pregnant women here. So if you have a migraine or fever, please take your Tylenol.

#tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancyhealth #pregnancytips #parentdata #emilyoster

Exciting news! We have new, high-quality data that says it’s safe to take Tylenol during pregnancy and there is no link between Tylenol exposure and neurodevelopmental issues in kids. Comment “Link” for a DM to an article exploring this groundbreaking study.

While doctors have long said Tylenol was safe, confusing studies, panic headlines, and even a lawsuit have continually stoked fears in parents. As a result, many pregnant women have chosen not to take it, even if it would help them.

This is why good data is so important! When we can trust the data, we can trust our choices. And this study shows there is no blame to be placed on pregnant women here. So if you have a migraine or fever, please take your Tylenol.

#tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancyhealth #pregnancytips #parentdata #emilyoster
...

How many words should kids say — and when? Comment “Link” for a DM to an article about language development!

For this graph, researchers used a standardized measure of vocabulary size. Parents were given a survey and checked off all the words and sentences they have heard their child say.

They found that the average child—the 50th percentile line—at 24 months has about 300 words. A child at the 10th percentile—near the bottom of the distribution—has only about 50 words. On the other end, a child at the 90th percentile has close to 600 words. One main takeaway from these graphs is the explosion of language after fourteen or sixteen months. 

What’s valuable about this data is it can give us something beyond a general guideline about when to consider early intervention, and also provide reassurance that there is a significant range in this distribution at all young ages. 

#cribsheet #emilyoster #parentdata #languagedevelopment #firstwords

How many words should kids say — and when? Comment “Link” for a DM to an article about language development!

For this graph, researchers used a standardized measure of vocabulary size. Parents were given a survey and checked off all the words and sentences they have heard their child say.

They found that the average child—the 50th percentile line—at 24 months has about 300 words. A child at the 10th percentile—near the bottom of the distribution—has only about 50 words. On the other end, a child at the 90th percentile has close to 600 words. One main takeaway from these graphs is the explosion of language after fourteen or sixteen months.

What’s valuable about this data is it can give us something beyond a general guideline about when to consider early intervention, and also provide reassurance that there is a significant range in this distribution at all young ages.

#cribsheet #emilyoster #parentdata #languagedevelopment #firstwords
...

I saw this and literally laughed out loud 😂 Thank you @adamgrant for sharing this gem! Someone let me know who originally created this masterpiece so I can give them the proper credit.

I saw this and literally laughed out loud 😂 Thank you @adamgrant for sharing this gem! Someone let me know who originally created this masterpiece so I can give them the proper credit. ...

Perimenopause comes with a whole host of symptoms, like brain fog, low sex drive, poor energy, and loss of muscle mass. These symptoms can be extremely bothersome and hard to treat. Could testosterone help? Comment “Link” for a DM to an article about the data on testosterone treatment for women in perimenopause.

#perimenopause #perimenopausehealth #womenshealth #hormoneimbalance #emilyoster #parentdata

Perimenopause comes with a whole host of symptoms, like brain fog, low sex drive, poor energy, and loss of muscle mass. These symptoms can be extremely bothersome and hard to treat. Could testosterone help? Comment “Link” for a DM to an article about the data on testosterone treatment for women in perimenopause.

#perimenopause #perimenopausehealth #womenshealth #hormoneimbalance #emilyoster #parentdata
...

What age is best to start swim lessons? Comment “Link” for a DM to an article about water safety for children 💦

Summer is quickly approaching! You might be wondering if it’s the right time to have your kid start swim lessons. The AAP recommends starting between 1 and 4 years old. This is largely based on a randomized trial where young children were put into 8 or 12 weeks of swim lessons. They found that swimming ability and water safety reactions improve in both groups, and more so in the 12 weeks group.

Below this age range though, they are too young to actually learn how to swim. It’s fine to bring your baby into the pool (if you’re holding them) and they might like the water. But starting formal safety-oriented swim lessons before this age isn’t likely to be very helpful.

Most importantly, no matter how old your kid is or how good of a swimmer they are, adult supervision is always necessary!

#swimlessons #watersafety #kidsswimminglessons #poolsafety #emilyoster #parentdata

What age is best to start swim lessons? Comment “Link” for a DM to an article about water safety for children 💦

Summer is quickly approaching! You might be wondering if it’s the right time to have your kid start swim lessons. The AAP recommends starting between 1 and 4 years old. This is largely based on a randomized trial where young children were put into 8 or 12 weeks of swim lessons. They found that swimming ability and water safety reactions improve in both groups, and more so in the 12 weeks group.

Below this age range though, they are too young to actually learn how to swim. It’s fine to bring your baby into the pool (if you’re holding them) and they might like the water. But starting formal safety-oriented swim lessons before this age isn’t likely to be very helpful.

Most importantly, no matter how old your kid is or how good of a swimmer they are, adult supervision is always necessary!

#swimlessons #watersafety #kidsswimminglessons #poolsafety #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Can babies have salt? 🧂 While babies don’t need extra salt beyond what’s in breast milk or formula, the risks of salt toxicity from normal foods are minimal. There are concerns about higher blood pressure in the long term due to a higher salt diet in the first year, but the data on these is not super compelling and the differences are small.

Like with most things, moderation is key! Avoid very salty chips or olives or saltines with your infant. But if you’re doing baby-led weaning, it’s okay for them to share your lightly salted meals. Your baby does not need their own, unsalted, chicken if you’re making yourself a roast. Just skip the super salty stuff.

 #emilyoster #parentdata #childnutrition #babynutrition #foodforkids

Can babies have salt? 🧂 While babies don’t need extra salt beyond what’s in breast milk or formula, the risks of salt toxicity from normal foods are minimal. There are concerns about higher blood pressure in the long term due to a higher salt diet in the first year, but the data on these is not super compelling and the differences are small.

Like with most things, moderation is key! Avoid very salty chips or olives or saltines with your infant. But if you’re doing baby-led weaning, it’s okay for them to share your lightly salted meals. Your baby does not need their own, unsalted, chicken if you’re making yourself a roast. Just skip the super salty stuff.

#emilyoster #parentdata #childnutrition #babynutrition #foodforkids
...

Is sleep training bad? Comment “Link” for a DM to an article breaking down the data on sleep training 😴

Among parenting topics, sleep training is one of the most divisive. Ultimately, it’s important to know that studies looking at the short- and long-term effects of sleep training show no evidence of harm. The data actually shows it can improve infant sleep and lower parental depression.

Even so, while sleep training can be a great option, it will not be for everyone. Just as people can feel judged for sleep training, they can feel judged for not doing it. Engaging in any parenting behavior because it’s what’s expected of you is not a good idea. You have to do what works best for your family! If that’s sleep training, make a plan and implement it. If not, that’s okay too.

What’s your experience with sleep training? Did you feel judged for your decision to do (or not do) it?

#sleeptraining #newparents #babysleep #emilyoster #parentdata

Is sleep training bad? Comment “Link” for a DM to an article breaking down the data on sleep training 😴

Among parenting topics, sleep training is one of the most divisive. Ultimately, it’s important to know that studies looking at the short- and long-term effects of sleep training show no evidence of harm. The data actually shows it can improve infant sleep and lower parental depression.

Even so, while sleep training can be a great option, it will not be for everyone. Just as people can feel judged for sleep training, they can feel judged for not doing it. Engaging in any parenting behavior because it’s what’s expected of you is not a good idea. You have to do what works best for your family! If that’s sleep training, make a plan and implement it. If not, that’s okay too.

What’s your experience with sleep training? Did you feel judged for your decision to do (or not do) it?

#sleeptraining #newparents #babysleep #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Does your kid love to stall right before bedtime? 💤 Tell me more about their tactics in the comments below!

#funnytweets #bedtime #nightimeroutine #parentinghumor #parentingmemes

Does your kid love to stall right before bedtime? 💤 Tell me more about their tactics in the comments below!

#funnytweets #bedtime #nightimeroutine #parentinghumor #parentingmemes
...

Got a big decision to make? 🤔 Comment “Link” for a DM to read about my easy mantra for making hard choices. 

When we face a complicated problem in pregnancy or parenting, and don’t like either option A or B, we often wait around for a secret third option to reveal itself. This magical thinking, as appealing as it is, gets in the way. We need a way to remind ourselves that we need to make an active choice, even if it is hard. The mantra I use for this: “There is no secret option C.”

Having this realization, accepting it, reminding ourselves of it, can help us make the hard decisions and accurately weigh the risks and benefits of our choices.

#parentingquotes #decisionmaking #nosecretoptionc #parentingadvice #emilyoster #parentdata

Got a big decision to make? 🤔 Comment “Link” for a DM to read about my easy mantra for making hard choices.

When we face a complicated problem in pregnancy or parenting, and don’t like either option A or B, we often wait around for a secret third option to reveal itself. This magical thinking, as appealing as it is, gets in the way. We need a way to remind ourselves that we need to make an active choice, even if it is hard. The mantra I use for this: “There is no secret option C.”

Having this realization, accepting it, reminding ourselves of it, can help us make the hard decisions and accurately weigh the risks and benefits of our choices.

#parentingquotes #decisionmaking #nosecretoptionc #parentingadvice #emilyoster #parentdata
...

Excuse the language, but I have such strong feelings about this subject! Sometimes, it feels like there’s no winning as a mother. People pressure you to breastfeed and, in the same breath, shame you for doing it in public. Which is it?!

So yes, they’re being completely unreasonable. You should be able to feed your baby in peace. What are some responses you can give to someone who tells you to cover up? Share in the comments below ⬇️

#breastfeeding #breastfeedinginpublic #breastfeedingmom #motherhood #emilyoster

Excuse the language, but I have such strong feelings about this subject! Sometimes, it feels like there’s no winning as a mother. People pressure you to breastfeed and, in the same breath, shame you for doing it in public. Which is it?!

So yes, they’re being completely unreasonable. You should be able to feed your baby in peace. What are some responses you can give to someone who tells you to cover up? Share in the comments below ⬇️

#breastfeeding #breastfeedinginpublic #breastfeedingmom #motherhood #emilyoster
...

Potty training can feel like a Mount Everest-size challenge, and sadly, our evidence-based guidance is poor. So, I created a survey to collate advice and feedback on success from about 6,000 participants.

How long does potty training take? We found that there is a strong basic pattern here: the later you wait to start, the shorter time it takes to potty train. On average, people who start at under 18 months report it takes them about 12 weeks for their child to be fully trained (using the toilet consistently for both peeing and pooping). For those who start between 3 and 3.5, it’s more like nine days. Keep in mind that for all of these age groups, there is a range of length of time from a few days to over a year. Sometimes parents are told that if you do it right, it only takes a few days. While that is true for some people, it is definitely not the norm.

If you’re in the throes of potty training, hang in there! 

#emilyoster #parentdata #pottytraining #pottytrainingtips #toddlerlife

Potty training can feel like a Mount Everest-size challenge, and sadly, our evidence-based guidance is poor. So, I created a survey to collate advice and feedback on success from about 6,000 participants.

How long does potty training take? We found that there is a strong basic pattern here: the later you wait to start, the shorter time it takes to potty train. On average, people who start at under 18 months report it takes them about 12 weeks for their child to be fully trained (using the toilet consistently for both peeing and pooping). For those who start between 3 and 3.5, it’s more like nine days. Keep in mind that for all of these age groups, there is a range of length of time from a few days to over a year. Sometimes parents are told that if you do it right, it only takes a few days. While that is true for some people, it is definitely not the norm.

If you’re in the throes of potty training, hang in there!

#emilyoster #parentdata #pottytraining #pottytrainingtips #toddlerlife
...

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens. 

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children. 

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata

For children or adults with severe food allergies, they can be incredibly scary and restrictive. We may imagine that it’s easy to deal with a peanut allergy by, say, not eating peanut butter sandwiches. But for someone with a severe version of this allergy, they may never be able to go to a restaurant, for fear of a severe reaction to something in the air. Right now, there’s only one approved treatment for severe allergies like this and it’s limited to peanuts.

This is why the new medication Xolair is very exciting. It promises a second possible treatment avenue and one that works for other allergens. A new trail analyzed data from 177 children with severe food allergies. Two-thirds of the treatment group were able to tolerate the specified endpoint, versus just 7% of the placebo group. This is a very large treatment effect, and the authors found similarly large impacts on other allergens.

There are some caveats: This treatment won’t work for everyone. (One-third of participants did not respond to it.) Additionally, this treatment is an injection given every two to four weeks, indefinitely. This may make it less palatable to children.

Overall, even with caveats, this is life-changing news for many families!

#xolair #foodallergies #allergies #peanutallergy #emilyoster #parentdata
...

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips

If you have a fever during pregnancy, you should take Tylenol, both because it will make you feel better and because of concerns about fever in pregnancy (although these are also overstated).

The evidence that suggests risks to Tylenol focuses largely on more extensive exposure — say, taking it for more than 28 days during pregnancy. There is no credible evidence, even correlational, to suggest that taking it occasionally for a fever or headache would be an issue.

People take Tylenol for a reason. For many people, the choice may be between debilitating weekly migraines and regular Tylenol usage. The impacts studies suggest are very small. In making this decision, we should weigh the real, known benefit against the suggestion of this possible risk. Perhaps not everyone will come out at the same place on this, but it is crucial we give people the tools to make the choice for themselves.

#emilyoster #parentdata #tylenol #pregnancy #pregnancytips
...

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks

Parenting trends are like Cabbage Patch Kids: they’re usually only popular because a bunch of people are using them! Most of the time, these trends are not based on new scientific research, and even if they are, that new research doesn’t reflect all of what we’ve studied before.

In the future, before hopping onto the latest trend, check the data first. Unlike Cabbage Patch Kids, parenting trends can add a lot of unnecessary stress and challenges to your plate. What’s a recent trend that you’ve been wondering about?

#parentdata #emilyoster #parentingtips #parentingadvice #parentinghacks
...

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData! 

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity

As of this week, 1 million copies of my books have been sold. This feels humbling and, frankly, unbelievable. I’m so thankful to those of you who’ve read and passed along your recommendations of the books.

When I wrote Expecting Better, I had no plan for all of this — I wrote that book because I felt compelled to write it, because it was the book I wanted to read. As I’ve come out with more books, and now ParentData, I am closer to seeing what I hope we can all create. That is: a world where everyone has access to reliable data, based on causal evidence, to make informed, confident decisions that work for their families.

I’m so grateful you’re all here as a part of this, and I want to thank you! If you’ve been waiting for the right moment to sign up for full access to ParentData, this is it. ⭐️ Comment “Link” for a DM with a discount code for 20% off of a new monthly or annual subscription to ParentData!

Thank you again for being the best community of readers and internet-friends on the planet. I am so lucky to have you all here.

#parentdata #emilyoster #expectingbetter #cribsheet #familyfirm #parentingcommunity
...

Just eat your Cheerios and move on.

Just eat your Cheerios and move on. ...

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide

The AAP’s guidelines recommend sleeping in the same room as your baby “ideally for the first six months.” However, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lower after four months, and the evidence in favor of the protective effect of room sharing is quite weak (both overall and even more so after four months). There is also growing evidence that infants who sleep in their own room by four months sleep better at four months, better at nine months, and even better at 30 months.

With this in mind, it’s worth asking why this recommendation continues at all — or at least why the AAP doesn’t push it back to four months. They say decreased arousals from sleep are linked to SIDS, which could mean that babies sleeping in their own room is risky. But this link is extremely indirect, and they do not show direct evidence to support it.

According to the data we have, parents should sleep in the same room as a baby for as long as it works for them! Sharing a room with a child may have negative impacts on both child and adult sleep. We should give families more help in navigating these trade-offs and making the decisions that work best for them.

#emilyoster #parentdata #roomsharing #sids #parentingguide
...